Our Seahorse Research

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We work on fish evolution in the seahorse family.

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<ul><li> 1. A Multigene Phylogeny ofSyngnathid Fishes Healy Hamilton California Academy of SciencesNorah Saarman University of California, David Harasti Santa CruzBeth Moore, Graham Short, &amp; W. Brian SimisonCalifornia Academy of Sciences Martin Gomon Museum Victoria </li></ul> <p> 2. AcknowledgmentsDr. Jeff Leis and Mark McGrouther Australian MuseumDianne Bray, Museum VictoriaRalph Foster, South Australian MuseumDavid Harasti, Dept. of Primary Industries, NSW SEAHORSEClive Roberts, Carl StruthersSLEUTHMuseum of New Zealand, Te Papa, TongarewaDr. David Neely, Dave Catania, Jens Vindum, Jim Evans California Academy of SciencesDr. E. O. Wiley and Andy BentleyNational History Museum, The University of KansasDr. Mark Erdmann, Conservation InternationalDr. Gerry Allen, Western Australian MuseumInstitute for Research &amp; Development, New CaledoniaPierre LaBoute, Noumea, New CaledoniaDr. Robert Browne, Dr. David Muirhead, Kevin Smith Inshore Fish GroupDr. Theodore W. Pietsch and Katherine PearsonUniversity of Washington 3. Outline: A Multigene Phylogeny of Syngnathid Fishes 1. Introduction: why syngnathids?2. Issues in current syngnathid taxonomy3. Molecular approach to address syngnathid systematics4. Results: molecular phylogenetic Photos: hypotheses, mapping of non-molecular David Harasti characters5. Conclusions and next steps 4. Introduction: Why we study syngnathid fishes Syngnathid fishes: a diverse, unique and IUCN Syngnathid listings charismatic group DD VU EN CRSeahors es 2391 over 50 genera and atPipefishes5 1 least 278 valid species of Seadragons2Pipehorses5 pipefishes, seahorses,DD = Data Deficient sea dragons, andVU = Vulnerable EN = Endangered pipehorsesCR = Critically Endangered Syngnathidae are characterized by:unique gillsabsence of pelvic finsdermal plates in ringsunusual reproductive strategies, including sex rolereversal and male brooding, with complex andvaried brood-pouch morphology 5. Hippocampus whitei Graham Short 6. Hippocampus abdominalisGraham Short 7. Hippocampusbargibanti Graham Short 8. Hippocampus pontohi David Harasti 9. Weedy Sea Dragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus Graham Short 10. Leafy Sea Dragon Phycodurus equesGraham Short 11. Pygmy pipehorse Idiotropiscis lumnitzeri Graham Short 12. Spotted pipefish Stigmatopora argus Graham Short 13. Briggs Crested pipefish Histiogamphelus briggsi Graham Short 14. Bent stick pipefishTrachyrhampusbioarctatus David Harasti 15. The Problem: Systematic relationships unresolved Unresolved systematic relationships at multiple levels Generic and specific boundaries are oftenuncertain evolutionary relationships at the species, genusand subfamily level are largely unresolved order Gasterosteiformes / Syngnathiformesdebated many new species remain to be described Many genera are monotypic, yet no study has measured their degree of evolutionary uniqueness Conservation and management of syngnathids isundermined by their challenging alphataxonomy and poorly resolved systematics 16. The problem Only two recognized sub-families, the Hippocampinae and the Syngnathinae (Paxton 1975) (Whitley, 1952)A. Hippocampinae: seahorses B. Syngnathinae: all others; isparaphyletic and includes 54includes only one genus withgenera and 233 valid species38 - 50 species (debated) Seadragons (Solegnathinae Tail-brooding Pipefishes(original Syngnathinae) Abdominal-brooding Pipefishes(Doryrhamphinae and Nerophinae) Pipehorses (originally included inHippocampinae) 17. Our Approach: Methods Morphological characters have proven problematic Molecular studies to date (Wilson et al., 2001 &amp;2003) suffer from limited taxon and molecularcharacter sampling. WE HAVE ADDED: 20 new genera Total of 59 taxa (37 genera) 4 new genetic markers, including 2 nuclearfragments 6 markers total, ~4500 aligned bps Mitochondrial; CO1, ND1, 12s, 16s Nuclear; RP1 intron of S7, Myh 6 18. Our Approach: Increased Taxon SamplingPrevious Generic Assignment Species Wilson (2003) This StudyPrevious Generic AssignmentSpeciesWilson (2003) This Study Acentronura 51Kimblaeus 1 Idiotropiscis 11Leptoichthys11 Anarchopterus 2 Leptonotus3 Apterygocampus1 Lissocampus 5 Bhanotia3 Maroubra21 Bryx5 Micrognathus71 Bulbonaricus3 Microphis212 Campichthys 4 Minyichthys 4 Choeroichthys 62Mitotichthys41 Corythoichthys 10 32Nannocampus 4 Cosmocampus141Nerophis3 11 Doryichthys 51Notiocampus 1 Doryrhamphus 14 13Penetopteryx2 Dunkerocampus 1 11Phoxocampus 3 Enneacampus 2 Phycodurus11 Entelurus 1 11Phyllopteryx1 11 Festucalex61Pseudophallus 31 Filicampus11Pugnaso 1 11 Halicampus 121Siokunichthys 51 Haliichthys 11Solegnathus 5 12 Heraldia1 Stigmatopora3 43 Hippichthys 51Stipecampus 11 Hippocampus45 99Syngnathoides 11 Histiogamphelus 22Syngnathus 32 14 3 Hypselognathus2 11Trachyrhamphus31 Ichthyocampus 2 Urocampus 2 11 Kaupus1 11Vanacampus4 24 Total 54 genera (16 monotypic)278 species16 genera37 genera 19. Results: Bayesian consensus tree Aulostomus chinensis 1 Aulostomus maculatus Fistularia petimbaSolenostomus cyanopterus Choeroichthys brachysoma 1 Choeroichthys sculptus 1 Doryichthys boajaOutgroups 1Microphis doecata 11Microphis ocellatus Doryrhamphus dactyliophorus1 10.99 Dunckerocampus chapmani1 Doryrhamphus excises10.51 Doryrhamphus jansii Maroubra perserrata Leptoichthys fistularis1 1Entelerus aequoreus Abdominal-brooding pipefish Nerophis spp1 Corythoichthys amplexus Corythoichthys intestinalis1 1Stigmatopora argus 1 0.99 Stigmatopora narinosaStigmatopora nigra 1Phycodurus eques Phyllopteryx taeniolatus 0.791 Solegnathus hardwicki 11Solegnathus spinosissimusSyngnathoides biaculeatusStipecampus cristatusSeadragonsCosmocampus elucensMicrognathus andersonii111 Syngnathus louisianae 1 1Syngnathus fuscus1 Syngnathus exilis0.85 Pseudophallus brasiliensis Hippicthys penicillus10.71 Siokunichthys nigrolineatus Urocampus carinirostris 1 Festucalex cinctusHistiogamphelus briggsi0.72 0.651Histiogamphelus cristatusHypselognathus rostratusTailbrooding pipefish 1 1 1 Mitotichthys semistriatusKaupus costatus0.66Pugnaso curtirostris1 0.911 Vanacampus vercoi Vanacampus margaritifer1Vanacampus phillipi 1 Vanacampus poecilolaemus 1 Halicampus sp0.52 Hippocampus abdominalis 0.95Hippocampus trimaculatusHippocampus whiteiSeahorses 1 Hippocampus fuscus 1 1 Hippocampus ingens 1 Hippocampus zosteraeHippocampus bargibanti 1 Hippocampus denise11 Hippocampus pontohi Filicampus tigiris11Trachyrhamphus bioarctatus Haliichthys taeniophorus0.65 1 Acentronura tentaculata Pipehorses Idiotropiscis lumnitzeri 20. ResultsBayesian consensus tree Maximum parsimony strict consensus Aulostomus chinensis 1 Aulostomus maculatus Aulostomus chinensis Aulostomus maculatus Fistularia petimbaFistularia petimba Solenostomus cyanopterusSolenostomus cyanopterusChoeroichthys brachysoma 100 Choeroichthys brachysoma1Choeroichthys sculptus 67Choeroichthys sculptusDoryichthys boaja100 Doryrhamphus dactyliophorus 1111 Microphis doecata Dunckerocampus chapmani Microphis ocellatus 100 Doryichthys boajaDoryrhamphus dactyliophorus8890Microphis doecata 11 Dunckerocampus chapmaniMicrophis ocellatus 0.99 100961Doryrhamphus excises96Doryrhamphus excises 1 Doryrhamphus jansii 0.51 Doryrhamphus jansiiMaroubra perserrata 95 Maroubra perserrataLeptoichthys fistularis100Entelerus aequoreus1Nerophis spp Entelerus aequoreus1Leptoichthys fistularisNerophis spp Corythoichthys amplexus 100 1Corythoichthys amplexusCorythoichthys intestinalis98Corythoichthys intestinalis96Stigmatopora argus 1 1 Stigmatopora argus 100100 Stigmatopora narinosa10.99Stigmatopora narinosaStigmatopora nigra Stigmatopora nigra100 Phycodurus eques Phycodurus eques100 Phyllopteryx taeniolatus1Phyllopteryx taeniolatus 100 80Solegnathus hardwicki0.79 Solegnathus spinosissimus 1Solegnathus hardwicki67 1 1Solegnathus spinosissimusSyngnathoides biaculeatus Syngnathoides biaculeatus Stipecampus cristatus Stipecampus cristatus 100 Acentronura tentaculata Idiotropiscis lumnitzeri Cosmocampus elucens Filicampus tigiris 85 Micrognathus andersonii 100 Trachyrhamphus bioarctatus 1 11 Syngnathus louisianaeHaliichthys taeniophorus1 1Syngnathus fuscus Cosmocampus elucens 1 Syngnathus exilis 100 Micrognathus andersonii 0.85100Pseudophallus brasiliensis Syngnathus louisianae 100Hippicthys penicillusSyngnathus fuscus 199 0.71 Siokunichthys nigrolineatusSyngnathus exilisUrocampus carinirostris98Pseudophallus brasiliensisFestucalex cinctus79 Hippicthys penicillus1Siokunichthys nigrolineatus 0.721 Histiogamphelus briggsi Histiogamphelus cristatus Festucalex cinctus10.651 Hypselognathus rostratusL=2065268 99Histiogamphelus briggsi Histiogamphelus cristatus1 Mitotichthys semistriatus9090Kaupus costatus Kaupus costatus 0.66 Pugnaso curtirostrisCI=0.228100 Hypselognathus rostratus 1 Mitotichthys semistriatus0.911 Vanacampus vercoi98Pugnaso curtirostris 1Vanacampus margaritiferRI=0.499Vanacampus vercoi Vanacampus phillipi Vanacampus margaritifer1100Vanacampus poecilolaemus 100 Vanacampus phillipi1 Halicampus spVanacampus poecilolaemus 0.52Hippocampus abdominalisHalicampus sp Hippocampus trimaculatusHippocampus abdominalis0.95 Hippocampus whitei100 Hippocampus fuscus1Hippocampus fuscus 100 Hippocampus ingens11 Hippocampus ingens Hippocampus trimaculatus1 Hippocampus zosterae Hippocampus whitei 100 Hippocampus bargibantiHippocampus zosterae1Hippocampus bargibanti 1Hippocampus denise 100 Hippocampus pontohi Hippocampus denise 1Filicampus tigiris Hippocampus pontohi 1 Urocampus carinirostris 1Trachyrhamphus bioarctatus 0.65Haliichthys taeniophorusAcentronura tentaculata 1.11Idiotropiscis lumnitzeri0.2 21. Results: Bayesian consensus treeAulostomus chinensisOutgroups1Aulostomus maculatusFistularia petimbaSolenostomus cyanopterus Choeroichthys brachysoma1 Choeroichthys sculptus Doryichthys boaja11 1Microphis doecata1Microphis ocellatus Doryrhamphus dactyliophorus1 10.99 Dunckerocampus chapmani 1Doryrhamphus excises10.51 Doryrhamphus jansii Maroubra perserrata Leptoichthys fistularis 1 1Entelerus aequoreus Nerophis spp1 Corythoichthys amplexus Corythoichthys intestinalis11Stigmatopora argus 1 0.99 Stigmatopora narinosaStigmatopora nigra Gastrophori; abdominal-brooding fish 1Phycodurus eques Phyllopteryx taeniolatus 0.791 Solegnathus hardwicki1 1Solegnathus spinosissimusSyngnathoides biaculeatusStipecampus cristatusCosmocampus elucensMicrognathus andersonii111 Syngnathus louisianae 1 1Syngnathus fuscus Brood pouch1 Syngnathus exilis0.85 anus Pseudophallus brasiliensis Hippicthys penicillus10.71 Siokunichthys nigrolineatus Urocampus carinirostris 1 Festucalex cinctus0.721Histiogamphelus briggsiHistiogamphelus cristatus 0.65Hypselognathus rostratus 1 1 1 Mitotichthys semistriatusKaupus costatus0.66Pugnaso curtirostris1 0.911 1 Vanacampus vercoi Vanacampus margaritiferUrophori; tail-brooding fishVanacampus phillipi 1 Vanacampus poecilolaemus 1 Halicampus sp0.52 Hippocampus abdominalisHippocampus trimaculatus 0.95Hippocampus whitei 1 Hippocampus fuscus 1 1 Hippocampus ingens Brood pouch 1 Hippocampus zosteraeHippocampus bargibanti 1 Hippocampus deniseanus11 Hippocampus pontohi Filicampus tigiris11Trachyrhamphus bioarctatus0.65 Haliichthys taeniophorus Acentronura tentaculata 1 Idiotropiscis lumnitzeri 0.2 22. Results: Doryrhamphinae: Flagtail pipefishes Mostly freshwater pipefishes Flagtail pipefishesDAVID HARASTIDunkerocampus Doryrhamphus 23. Results Solegnathinae: Sea Dragon clade 100Prehensile tailsDavid HarastiSolegnathusSygnathoidesHaliichthys taeniophorusRibboned sea dragon or pipefish 24. All photos Results: Who is sister to seahorses?David HarastiPrehensile tails Haliichthys Filicampus Trachyramphus 25. Conclusions Our molecular phylogeny is in agreement with Wilson(2003). Much revisionary work is needed at multiple taxonomic levels. The division of syngnathids into sub-families Syngnathinae and Hippocampinae is not supported; Syngnathinae is paraphyletic Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reproduce similar sets of clades, but differ in resolution of their arrangement Multiple origins of characters such as prehensile tails, freshwater habit, and fin presence/absence The seahorse's sister group is still unresolved 26. Future research in syngnathid systematics Further mapping of morphological characters to elucidate their origins and patterns in syngnathids Broader intraspecific geographic sampling Additional nuclear markers and increased axon sampling (21 genera to go!) These future steps will further advance a sufficiently robust phylogeny to support syngnathid taxonomy, systematics, biogeography, and conservation. 27. THANK YOU! David Harasti </p>