ornamental plants. the garden a garden is a place to grow fruits and vegetables, medicinal herbs,...
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Ornamental Plants Slide 2 The Garden A garden is a place to grow fruits and vegetables, medicinal herbs, and ornamental plants. Historically, most gardens have been used for all these purposes at once. The garden represents an image of paradise on Earth: the perfect place for peace, relaxation, solitude. The beauty of the natural world, enhanced and tamed for human use. The word paradise comes from ancient Persia, meaning a walled garden In the Bible, the first humans Adam and Eve lived in the Garden of Eden. The top Google Image search hits for paradise are all tropical beaches! Common garden elements: plants, water (fountains, ponds, waterfalls, streams), shade, sculpture, places to sit, paths. Elements of design: color, texture, line, and form. That about covers my knowledge of design. Two main sources of flower and garden knowledge: China and Japan, and European. Slide 3 Apollonian vs. Dionysian Many aspects of culture can be viewed through this philosophical concept, which was first expressed in a well-developed form by Friedrich Nietszche in his book The Birth of Tragedy. The basic idea is that society moves back and forth between these two poles: Apollonian traits: rational, logical, self- controlled, ordered civilization Dionysian traits: passionate, feeling, irrational, chaos Apollo was the god of the Sun, light, truth, and medicine Dionysus was the god of wine, insanity, and ecstasy In gardening, Apollonian gardens are ordered and well-kept: everything growing in a designated position, in careful patterns, well-manicured. A Dionysian garden lets nature run wild. The two impulses present in society get reflected in gardens. Slide 4 Ancient Gardens Ancient Egyptian gardens were surrounded by walls. The world outside was harsh, dry and too sunny, and the garden needed to be protected from it. The arid climate meant that gardens needed constant watering and attention. Ponds and irrigation ditches were used. Gardens were laid out in a formal, geometric pattern. Plants were more similar to wild plants: they hadnt had the years of breeding and selection that our current garden plants have. Trees such as date palms, figs, and pomegranates provided shade as well as fruit. Gardening was popular in ancient Rome, where topiary was invented: trees pruned to fanciful shapes. Since many Romans lived in city apartments, window box gardens were used. Gardening was common in the Muslim world. A common design matched the Garden of Eden: four waterways linked to a central pool divided the garden into quarters. Slide 5 Hanging Gardens of Babylon Constructed about 600 BC by King Nebuchdnezzar to please his homesick wife. She was from Persia, a more fertile and hilly place than the flat land of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq). It was one of the Seven Wonders of the World: popular places for tourists from ancient Greece and Rome. Destroyed an earthquake around 100 AD Needed to pump water from the river to the top of the structure. Slide 6 French Gardens The French gardening style was based on symmetry and order: human dominance over nature. Geometric patterns and carefully pruned plants were used. The Gardens of Versailles reached their peak under Louis X!V (1638-1715). He was the Sun King, the center of the European universe at the height of French power. At the center of the garden is the statue of Apollo, the Greek god of the Sun, symbol of Louis XIV Grand views, extending to the horizon, contrasted with more intimate perspectives within the garden: fountains, grottoes, statues. The parterre was a common element. A rectangular planting bed composed of closely clipped hedges and colored gravel (and sometimes flowers), in a geometric design. Masses of color: carpet bedding of flowers. Slide 7 English Gardens The English garden can also be called a landscape park. It developed in the 1700s as a reaction to the formal French style. It presented an idealized view of the natural world. Lakes, lawns, gently rolling hills, groves of trees, classical Greek temples or scenic (fake) ruins. No symmetry, plants growing into their natural form. It is designed to appear artless and uncontrived. The ideal was blending with nature, so the garden did not have a visible wall. Sometimes a ditch was dug and a wall placed at the bottom: the outside world was kept separate, but the wall was not visible from the garden. The cottage garden is the English garden translated into a style for the middle class. The design is informal, and it uses dense plantings of flowers and edible plants. Most modern American gardens are derived from this style. Slide 8 Chinese and Japanese Gardens Gardening in China is at least as ancient as in Egypt. Gardens in China sought a naturalistic look, a spiritual connection with nature and away from the pressures of society. The garden was the living embodiment of a painting or a poem. Many plants and objects had symbolic meanings: bamboo is strong and resilient; pine is long-lived and persistent; lotus represents purity; peonies symbolize wealth. Essential elements: a small building with the best view of the garden, pools of water, a mountain with a tree, rocks, asymmetry Especially interesting rocks represented wisdom and immortality, and could be very expensive. Water elements included ponds, streams, and waterfalls. Goldfish was often in them. Plants were essential elements. Some common garden flowers come from China: chrysanthemum, peony, flowering plum, roses, camellia. But generally, plants were more valued for seasonal changes than flowers. These gardens tend to be more shades of green and brown and not bright colors. Slide 9 Zen Gardens Buddhist monks spread much Chinese culture to Japan around 600 AD. Japanese gardening modified and expanded on Chinese ideas. Zen Buddhism is based on the idea that one can gain transcendent wisdom through the practice of meditation and contemplation, and that written doctrines are a hindrance to achieving Enlightenment. Direct experience of the Divine is what is needed, not common beliefs or rational arguments. Zen philosophy originated when the Buddha gave the Flower Sermon: he sat without speaking, twirling a flower and twinkling his eyes. Wisdom was communicated to his followers wordlessly. Zen gardens are used for contemplation. They are extremely simple and highly symbolic. Water is represented by raked gravel or sand. The garden consists of a few carefully placed rocks or shrubs amidst the gravel Raking the gravel is itself a form of meditation. Slide 10 Cut Flowers Most flowers are sold for big holidays: Christmas, Mothers Day, Valentines Day, plus weddings and funerals. There is a great deal of ethnic group specificity: for instance, white is the color of death in many Asian cultures, but it symbolizes purity in European cultures. In Victorian times (roughly 1840- 1910), an elaborate language of flowers was developed. There are two primary flower arranging traditional: English Garden and Japanese. These traditions have become mixed in contemporary design. Slide 11 Ikebana Traditional Japanese flower arranging got its start with Buddhist missionaries from China, around 600 AD. There are over 3000 Ikebana schools in Japan, with many different styles and philosophies. Much of modern Western flower arranging is based on Ikebana. The emphasis is on a minimalist style, with each element carefully placed and symbolizing some aspect of the world. Line, shape, and form are emphasized, with the greens and browns of leaves and wood important. Usually only a single flower color is used. The positions, angles, and sizes of various elements are prescribed. Elements often I groups of 3: heaven, earth, humanity; or sun, moon, earth, etc. In this example, the shin branch represents Truth, the soe branch represents support for the Truth, and the hikae branch and flowers moderate and balance the ideas presented in Truth. The kenzan is a spiked plant holder. Slide 12 Some Ikebana Examples Slide 13 English Flower Arranging The emphasis is on masses of complementary colors, often with a radially symmetric design. This is what florists usually produce. Containers are not emphasized: usually just a simple vase. Foliage is present as a background feature, but the emphasis is on brightly colored flowers. This example is a crescent arrangement. The basic shape is defined by sprays of small flowering branches. A group of focus flowers is placed low and centered to achieve visual balance and stability. Finally, a group of filler flowers are used to fill in the shape and taper off the ends. Modern high style floral design is mixture of Japanese and English ideas. Slide 14 Some English Floral Arrangements Slide 15 Roses The rose is probably the most well known and popular cut flower, and it is also a very popular garden flower. There are several cultivated species of rose, in the genus Rosa. Members of the rose family, along with many common fruits like apples, pears, peaches, apricots, strawberries and raspberries. Various species of wild rose are found in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, in both the Old World and the New World. The basic rose flower has 5 petals and looks much like an apple blossom. The flowers have many stamens. Most modern roses are the result of a mutation that converted the stamens into additional petals. The fruit of the rose, called the rose hip, grows below the flower after fertilization. It is a rich source of vitamin C, but it isnt eaten as a fruit very much. Rose hip tea is a common herbal tea variety. Slide 16 Roses Rose cultivation probably began in China 5000 years ago or so. However, they were also cultivated independently in the Middle East and Egypt from very early times. They were well known in the Roman Empire. The first distilled essential oil was attar of roses (from the Muslim Golden Age, when distillation was invented). Europe and western Asia had their own cultivated roses, which were popula