orkom evolusi dan kinerja komputer

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Evolusi dan Kinerja KomputerMaria Susan Anggreainy, M.Komp

09/03/2008

Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom

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Komputer Generasi PertamaVacuum Tubes

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ENIAC - backgroundElectronic Numerical Integrator And Computer John Mauchly (dosen tehnik elektro di University of Pennsylvania) dan mahasiswa pasca sarjananya John Presper Eckert Trajectory tables for weapons Started 1943 Finished 1946Too late for war effort09/03/2008

Used until 1955

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ENIAC - detailsDecimal (not binary) 20 accumulators of 10 digits Programmed manually by switches 18,000 vacuum tubes 30 tons 15,000 square feet 140 kW power consumption 5,000 additions per secondMaria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom

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ENIAC (1940s)

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von Neumann/TuringStored Program concept Hasilnya dikenal dengan nama komputer IAS, yang struktur umumnya terdiri dari :Main memory storing programs and data ALU operating on binary data Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing Input and output equipment operated by control unit

Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies Completed 1952

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Structure of von Neumann machine

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Pentingnya IASKomputer yang ada pada saat ini memiliki fungsi dan struktur umum yang sama dan artinya terkait dengan mesin von neumann, yaitu IAS

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IAS - detailsTerdiri dari 1000 lokasi penyimpanan yang disebut word Masing-masing terdiri dari 40 bit Data dan instruksi disimpan disini (harus berupa kode biner) Setiap bilangan dinyatakan oleh sebuh bit tanda dan 39 bit nilai Setiap word bisa terdiri dari dua instruksi yang terdiri dari 20 bit8-bit kode operasi (op code) 12 bit alamat yang menandai salah satu word dalam memory09/03/2008 Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom 9

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IAS details (2)Control Unit mengoperasikan IAS dengan cara mengambil instruksi-instruksi dari memori dan mengeksekusinya sekaligus Control Unit dan ALU memiliki lokasi penyimpanan yang disebut register, yaitu :Memory Buffer Register Memory Address Register Instruction Register Instruction Buffer Register Program Counter Accumulator dan Multiplier Quotient

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Structure of IAS detail

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Operasi IASIAS beroperasi secara repetitif membentuk siklus instruksiSiklus pengambilan : Op code diletakkan ke IR, dan alamat diletakkan ke MAR Siklus eksekusi

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Instuksi IASIAS memilki 21 buah instruksi yang dapat dikelompokkan menjadi sebagi berikut :Data Transfer Unconditional Branch Conditional Branch Arithmetic Address Modify09/03/2008 Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom 14

Von Neumann

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Komputer KomersialDitandai oleh dua buah persuhaan besar Sperry dan IBM

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Commercial Computers1947 - Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) US Bureau of Census 1950 calculations Became part of Sperry-Rand Corporation Late 1950s - UNIVAC II09/03/2008

Faster Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom More memory

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IBMPunched-card processing equipment 1953 - the 701IBMs first stored program computer Scientific calculations

1955 - the 702Business applications09/03/2008

Lead to 700/7000 seriesMaria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom

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Komputer Generasi KeduaTransistor

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TransistorsReplaced vacuum tubes Smaller Cheaper Less heat dissipation Solid State device Made from Silicon (Sand) Invented 1947 at Bell Labs William Shockley et al.09/03/2008 Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom 20

Transistor Based ComputersSecond generation machines NCR & RCA produced small transistor machines IBM 7000 DEC - 1957Produced PDP-1

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Komputer Generasi KetigaIntegrated Circuit (IC)

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MicroelectronicsLiterally - small electronics A computer is made up of gates, memory cells and interconnections These can be manufactured on a semiconductor e.g. silicon wafer09/03/2008 Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom 23

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Generations of ComputerVacuum tube - 1946-1957 Transistor - 1958-1964 Small scale integration - 1965 onUp to 100 devices on a chip

Medium scale integration - to 1971100-3,000 devices on a chip

Large scale integration - 1971-19773,000 - 100,000 devices on a chip

Very large scale integration - 1978 to date100,000 - 100,000,000 devices on a chip

Ultra large scale integrationOver 100,000,000 devices on a chip09/03/2008 Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom 25

Moores LawIncreased density of components on chip Gordon Moore - cofounder of Intel Number of transistors on a chip will double every year Since 1970s development has slowed a littleNumber of transistors doubles every 18 months

Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged Higher packing density means shorter electrical paths, giving higher performance Smaller size gives increased flexibility Reduced power and cooling requirements Fewer interconnections increases reliability

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Growth in CPU Transistor Count

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IBM 360 series1964 Replaced (& not compatible with) 7000 series First planned family of computersSimilar or identical instruction sets Similar or identical O/S Increasing speed Increasing number of I/O ports (i.e. more terminals) Increased memory size Increased cost09/03/2008 Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom 28

DEC PDP-81964 First minicomputer Did not need air conditioned room Small enough to sit on a lab bench $16,000$100k+ for IBM 360

Embedded applications & OEM BUS STRUCTURE09/03/2008 Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom 29

DEC - PDP-8 Bus Structure

Console Controller

CPU

Main Memory

I/O Module

I/O Module

OMNIBUS

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Semiconductor MemoryTahun 1950-an atau 1960-an Memori komputer masih menggunakan cincincincin yang disebut core Berubah pada tahun 1970 Fairchild membuat memori semikonduktor pertama Size of a single corei.e. 1 bit of magnetic core storage

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Holds 256 bits Non-destructive read Much faster than core Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom Capacity approximately doubles each year31

Intel1971 - 4004First microprocessor (semua komponen CPU berada pada satu keping) 4 bit

Followed in 1972 by 80088 bit Both designed for specific applications

1974 - 8080Intels first general purpose microprocessor09/03/2008 Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom 32

Speeding it upPipelining On board cache On board L1 & L2 cache Branch prediction Data flow analysis Speculative execution

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Performance MismatchProcessor speed increased Memory capacity increased Memory speed lags behind processor speed

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DRAM and Processor Characteristics

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Trends in DRAM use

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SolutionsIncrease number of bits retrieved at one timeMake DRAM wider rather than deeper

Change DRAM interfaceCache

Reduce frequency of memory accessMore complex cache and cache on chip

Increase interconnection bandwidthHigh speed buses Hierarchy of buses

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Pentium vs Power PCPentium mewakili CISC Power PC Mewakili RISC

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Dua rancangan yang digunakan untuk CPU? CISC(complex instruction set computing) Mendukung sejumlah besar instruksi CPU mengeksekusi instruksi-instruksi yang kompleks lebih cepat

RISC(reduced instruction set computing) Mendukung lebih sedikit instruksi CPU mengeksekusi instruksi sederhana lebih cepat39

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Pentium Evolution (1)8080first general purpose microprocessor 8 bit data path Used in first personal computer Altair

8086much more powerful 16 bit instruction cache, prefetch few instructions 8088 (8 bit external bus) used in first IBM PC

8028616 Mbyte memory addressable up from 1Mb

8038609/03/2008

32 bit Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom Support for multitasking

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Pentium Evolution (2)80486sophisticated powerful cache and instruction pipelining built in maths co-processor

PentiumSuperscalar Multiple instructions executed in parallel

Pentium ProIncreased superscalar organization Aggressive register renaming branch prediction data flow analysis speculative execution09/03/2008 Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom 41

Pentium Evolution (3)Pentium IIMMX technology graphics, video & audio processing

Pentium IIIAdditional floating point instructions for 3D graphics

Pentium 4Note Arabic rather than Roman numerals Further floating point and multimedia enhancements

Itanium64 bit see chapter 1509/03/2008

See Intel web pages for detailed Maria Susan Anggreainy, M.Kom information on processors

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Evolusi Power PC601: tujuan 601 adalah untuk membawa arsitektur PowerPC ke pasaran secepat mungkin. 601 merupakan mesin 32-bit. 603: ditujukan bagi low-end desktop dan komputer portabel. 603 juga merupakan mesin 32-bit, yang unjuk kerjanya dapat diperbandingkan dengan 601, tetapi dengan harga yang lebih rendah dan implementasinya lebih efisien. 604: ditujukan bagi komputer desktop dan low-end server. Lagi, ini adalah mesin 32-bit, tetapi menggunakan teknik rancangan superskalar lanjutan untuk mencapai kinerja yang lebih besar. 620: ditujukan bagi server mutakhir anggota kelompok PowerPC Pertama yang menerapkan arsitektur 64-bit penuh, mencakup register 64-bit dan lintasan data. 740/750: Juga dikenal sebagai prosesor G3. Prosesor ini mengintegrasikan dua tingkatan cache dalam keeping prosesor utama, menyediakan peningkatan kinerja penting atas mesin yang dapat diperbandingkan dengan organisasi cache off-chip. G4: Prosesor ini meningkatkan kesamaan dan kecepatan internal dari keping prosesor. Terbaru G5

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Buku rujukan : William Stallings, 2003, architecture and computer organization, prentice-hall, usa

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