Organization Development “Organization improvement through action research” – Wendell L French & Cecil Bell

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<ul><li><p>Organization DevelopmentOrganization improvement through action research Wendell L French &amp; Cecil Bell</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentMany questions may arise in the minds of audience!!!!!!!! </p><p>*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization Development It is a new term : [means] Conceptual Effort Effectiveness Viability</p><p> It is a process, it links between one and another for organization wide improvements </p><p> *Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentA Long term effort, led and supported by top managementTo improve an organizations vision, empowerment, learning, and problem solving processesThrough an on going, collaborative management of organizations cultureAdopt through the use of theories and practice of planned changeThreats increased to effectiveness, efficiency and profitabilityFacing of challenges from turbulent environments, increased competition and changing customer demandsMaintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology, strategy, culture and processes *Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentOrganization development :</p><p> Focus On Increasing the effectiveness of Individuals Teams Organizations human and social processes Dual Focus a unique strength of Organizational Development Energize the talents of Organization members in the pursuit of their own self interests*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentStages and growth of Organization Development:Started late 1950s Behavioural scientists steeped in to make use of technology and group dynamics Apply knowledge to improve team functioning and inter group relationships Human and social processes design of work, tasks, organization structure, conflict resolutions, strategy formulation and implementation Between 1970-80 thousands of Organizations in both private and public sectors used the theory and methods of Organizational development for great successCurrently, Organizational development represents one of the best strategy to cope market place &amp; society *Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentDefinitions of Organization Development:</p><p>Earlier definitions:Organization development is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organizations processes, using behavioural science knowledge Beckhard, 1969Organization development (OD) is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structure of organizations so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself Bennis, 1969*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentDefinitions..OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement, using reflexive, self analytic methods Schmuck and Miles, 1971Organization development is a process of planned change change of an organizations culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (Especially decision making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes the examination Burke and Hornstein, 1972Organization development practitioner is to an organization as a physician is to a human body. Practitioner diagnoses the most important priorities to address in the organization, suggest a change management plan, then guides the organization through the necessary change MC. Namara</p><p>*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentTodays Organization operate in a rapidly changing environments consequently, one of the most important assets of an organization is the ability to manage change and for people to remain healthy and authenticNew definition of OD, Organization development is the attempt to influence the members of an organization to expand their candidates with each other about their views of the organization and their experience in it to take greater responsibility for their own actions as organization membersThe assumption behind OD is that when people pursue both of these objectives simultaneously they are likely to discover new ways of working together that they experience as more effective for achieving their own and their shared goals. And when it does not happen, such activity helps them to understand why and to make meaningful choices*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentPrimary Characteristics of OD:Focuses on culture and processEncourages collaboration between organizational leaders and members in managing culture and processTeam of all kinds are particularly important for task accomplishmentsFocuses primarily on the human and social side of the organizationParticipation and involvement in problem solving and decision making by all levels of organizationFocus on systemic change, views organizations as complex social systems</p><p>*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentPrimary characteristics of OD..OD practitioners are facilitators, collaborators, and co-learners with the client system Focus on imparting of problem solving skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods to client to enable it to solve its problems ion its ownRelies on action research model with extensive participation by client system membersDevelopment view seeking betterment of both individual and organization attempting to create Win-Win solutions is standard practice on OD programs</p><p>*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentAssumptions and Values Underlying OD:Dealing with IndividualImplication for Managers [Individual]Dealing with groupsImplication for Managers [Group dynamics] Dealing with individuals Most individuals want to develop their potential and have drives towards personal growth and development if provided with supportive and challenging environmentMost people desire to make, and are capable of making, a higher level of contribution to achieving organizational goals than is normally permitted</p><p>*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentImplication for managersAsk, listen, support, challenge, encourage risk-taking, permit failure, remove obstacles and barriers, give autonomy and respon- sibility, set high standards, reward successDealing with groupsOne of the most relevant reference group for individuals is the work group, including peers and bossMost people desire to be accepted, and interact with one or more small reference groupsMost people are capable of making greater contributions to the groups effectiveness and development</p><p>*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentImplication for managersLet teams flourish; leaders should invest in groups/teams; adopt a team-leadership style rather than a one-on-one-style; actively engage group members to help leader in decision-making Problem-solving, by training them up suitably; help group members to deal with both positive and negative feelings; solve problems through mutual interactionsDesigning and running an organization--- Traditional bureaucratic organization structure --- Needs &amp; aspirations of employees to be addressed--- Putting people first can result in organizations that are humane, development and empowering as well as high performing in terms of productivity profitability and quality of output</p><p>*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentOD Interventions: Refers to a set of planned change activities intended to help an organization to increase its effectiveness Based on valid information Opportunity for free and informed choice Gain members internal commitment Human Process Interventions: T Groups Provides members with experimental learning about group dynamics, leadership, interpersonal relationsProcess consultation/third party intervention Consultant help group members to diagnose group functioning and to devise solutions to process problems (conflicts, communication, norms)</p><p>*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentTeam Building - Goes beyond process consultations, examine groups task, member roles, strategies for performing tasks Techno Structural Interventions:Formal Structures Concerns organizations duration of labour how to specialize task performance Four kinds of structures Functional, self contained, units, matrix and net workedDifferentiation and integration specialization and coordination merchandising, redesigned as per environmental demands techno structural intervention Parallel learning structures Creating an informal, flexible, collateral organization to supplement existing organization, to solve problems that a regular organization cannot solve*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentHuman Resource Management Interventions:--- Goal setting--- Performance appraisal--- Reward systems--- Career planning and development--- Managing workforce diversity--- Employees wellness--- Parallel learning structuresPerson- focused interventions:--- Partnership between individuals and behavioural science experts--- Individuals Participants; Experts Facilitators*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization Development*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p> Participants Active - Intervention Facilitator Active Intervention Encounter Groups Role Playing Instrumentation Self Study &amp; Reliance Awareness &amp; expansion Psychodynamic models Motivational Arousal Training Feedback Coaching &amp; Mentoring</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentOrganization Development: Importance</p><p>*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>First LevelSecond LevelThird LevelContractual RelationshipImproved Organization performanceUnderstanding Organizations modern developmentChange AgentEarly DevelopmentAction ResearchSponsoring OrganizationOrganizational self renewalImportant figures/OD interventionsApplied Behavioural ScienceSystem Context</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization Development Input Transformation Output</p><p> Feedback loop [A] Feedback loop [B] Feedback loop [C] *Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest FacultyPlanningPreliminary dialogue Data gatheringFeedback of resultsAction PlanningUnfreezingActionLearning ProcessesAction planning Action steps</p><p>ChangingResultsChanges in BehaviourData gatheringMeasurement</p><p>Refreezing</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p></li><li><p> Organization DevelopmentUnfreezing: faced with dilemma or disconfirmation, the individual or group becomes aware of a need to changeChanging: The situation is diagnosed and new models of behaviour are explored and testedRefreezing: Application of new behaviour is evaluated and if reinforcing is adoptedBenefits of OD:Social Mapping, strategic planning, succession planning, system intelligence, system theory and system thinking Team building, team composition, work place democracy, work place spirituality, work place planning, miles stones, change management, coaching facilitation, training and development, industrial and organizational psychology are the key benefits*Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>Presented by T.P. BALAJI, Guest Faculty</p><p>*</p></li></ul>