organic gardening. rodale’s the organic gardener’s bible

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Organic Gardening

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National Organic Program Developed national organic standards and established an organic certification program

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Organic Gardening Rodales The organic gardeners bible National Organic Program Developed national organic standards and established an organic certication program National Organic Program Organic crops are raised without most conventional pesticides petroleum-based fertilizers sewage sludge-based fertilizers National Organic Program Prohibits GMOs As a general rule, natural substances are allowed Synthetic substances prohibited Does Natural Mean Organic? Natural and organic are not interchangeable Free-range, hormone-free, and natural don't mean organic Certification Accredited by USDA-accredited certifying agents The information an applicant must submit organic system plan substances used record keeping Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) National nonprofit organization that determines which products are allowed for use in organic production OMRI products Crop Scheduling Burpee endarWithZipCode.jsp?catid=1000&_reques tid= endarWithZipCode.jsp?catid=1000&_reques tid= Southeastern States vegetable-guide/pdf/vegetable-guide/pdf/ Clemson ants/vegetables/gardening/hgic1256.htmlants/vegetables/gardening/hgic1256.html Log Gardening Hugelkultur Bury logs in a mound Retain moisture Decomposition provides Nutrients Aeration Boosts microorganisms Heirloom Plants Open-pollinated Grown in an earlier era Before 1951, before hybridization became popular Better flavor Cover Crop P024_covercrop.pdfP024_covercrop.pdf Cover Crop Catch Crop Reduce nutrient leaching Cover Crop Improve soil Increases organic matter in soil Improves soil structure Increases microbial activity Cover Crop Natures fertilizers Nitrogen production from legumes Clover, beans, peas, vetch Cover Crop Rooting can aerate soil Blue lupine a biological plow in compacted soils Cover Crop Weed suppression Smother weeds Allelopathic effects Inhibit or slow growth of weeds by releasing natural toxins, or allelochemicals Small grains (rye), sorghum, sudangrass Companion Planting Certain combinations have synergistic effects Improve growth Prevent pests Attract beneficials Companion Planting Rose and garlic Tomatoes and cabbage Corn and beans Crop Rotation Dont grow the same crop in the same soil year after year Crop Rotation The longer the rotation, the better the results 4-year rotation: Corn, soybeans, oats, alfalfa Break up insect and disease life cycles Reduce weeds Improve soil nutrition Crop Rotation Iowa State University Marsden Farm rotation experiment started in 2003 The longer rotations produced better yields Reduced fertilizer/herbicides up to 88% 2/10/19/a-simple-fix-for- food/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_php=tru e&_type=blogs&_r=12/10/19/a-simple-fix-for- food/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_php=tru e&_type=blogs&_r=1 Organic v. Conventional Standford study suggests no health benefit However, do recognize reduced exposure to synthetic pesticides, growth hormones and GMO mber/organic.htmlmber/organic.html s Vegetable Gardening Minimum of six hours of sunlight Best with eight to ten hours Leafy crops, like lettuce, are more tolerant of shade Three Sisters Garden Sweet corn planted first Green beans planted a week later Climb the corn stalks Beans are legumes Fix nitrogen Three Sisters Garden Squash planted a week later between the corn and beans to shade out weeds Square Foot Gardening Grid pattern to conserve space Often raised beds Organic Gardening Compost Yard and food wastes make up approximately 30% of the waste stream in the United States Compost Transforming organic matter into soil-like material Invertebrates (insects and earthworms) and microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) Compost Improves Aeration Water retention Increase microbes Compost Fast or active composting done in 2 to 6 weeks Carbon-to-Nitrogen(C:N) Bacteria and fungi digest carbon as an energy source and ingest nitrogen for protein synthesis Carbon, the "food" Nitrogen, the digestive enzymes Carbon-to-Nitrogen(C:N) Brown Carbon Green Nitrogen Carbon-to-Nitrogen(C:N) 30:1 (carbon to nitrogen) (Clemson) 30 pounds of carbon for every 1 pound of nitrogen Another source reports 4 parts brown to 1 part green Carbon-to-Nitrogen(C:N) Too much carbon, turns cold Too much nitrogen, stinks (ammonia gas) Carbon-to-Nitrogen(C:N) Carbon are browns Leaves Dried grass clippings Straw Sawdust (moderation) Nitrogen are greens Fresh grass clippings Fresh manure Kitchen scraps (fruit, vegetables, coffee grounds, tea bags) Materials to NOT Compost Meat Attract scavengers Ashes from grill Dog and cat feces Disease risk And it stinks Surface Area Decomposition takes place when particle surfaces are in contact with air Chopping, shredding, mowing, or breaking up the material Increased surface area increases decomposition And heat Aeration Decomposition consumes oxygen Aerobic decomposition Anaerobic decomposition occurs with low oxygen Stinks Turn pile frequently Pitchfork Moisture Moisture content of percent Below 40%, microbial activity slows Above 60%, anaerobic decomposition Temperature Microorganisms generate heat as they decompose organic material 90F to 140F is ideal Activity slows down if too low or too high Vermicomposting Worm composting Redworms 50F to 70F Vermicomposting Worms transform food wastes into nutrient- rich "castings Vermicomposting Box or bin along with "bedding" of shredded cardboard and/or paper moistened to about 75% water content Vermicomposting Consume four to six pounds of food scraps per week About four to six months, the worms will have converted all of the bedding into "castings" Compost Tea Soaking bag of compost in a bucket of water for an hour Water soluble nutrients and beneficial microorganisms leach out Boost microorganisms in soil aspxaspx farmers-market-on-your-phone/ resources/resources/ -sci-gmo-food-safety-studies ,0, story-sci-gmo-food-safety-studies ,0, story