Org Change and Org Development Ch 16 May 3. Org Change and OD Org Change – in structure, technology or people –1 st order vs. 2 nd order Org Development.

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Slide 1 Org Change and Org Development Ch 16 May 3 Slide 2 Org Change and OD Org Change in structure, technology or people 1 st order vs. 2 nd order Org Development methods used to implement org change Slide 3 Impediments to change Reduced degrees of freedom; lack of training Fear of the unknown; change in politics/in-groups Identify ways to overcome these impediments: Employee voice, training, clear contingencies Does the nature of the situation seem to call for different ways of overcoming the impediments? System v. personnel change Slide 4 Lewins Force Field Analysis Model UnfreezeDesired State Refreeze How do we best unfreeze attitudes? How do we best refreeze the new state? developed 50 yrs ago, still prevalent today Slide 5 Driving & Restraining Forces To increase driving forces: 1. 2. To reduce restraining forces: 1. 2. 3. Slide 6 Employee Resistance to Change Main reasons for creating resistance: 1) Consequences of change - Direct costs Incongruent org systems 2) Process of change - Saving face Fear of unknown Slide 7 Refreezing Through org structure changes Through org reward systems consistent with new changes Lewins model effectively describes change process, but overlooks what? Slide 8 OD (cont) Change agents what do they do? Some orgs rely on external consultants, but typically internal people Diffusion of change the use of pilot projects Slide 9 Evaluating Change Using Kirkpatricks training evaluation model what does each level assess? Reactions Learning Behavior Outcomes Reactions measure restraining forces, learning reflects change itself, behavior measures refreezing success. Slide 10 OD Interventions OD implements org change w/emphasis on org effectiveness Tries to improve org capability to solve problems & cope with change 1) Total Quality Management (TQM): Developed by Deming (U.S.) in 50s, exported to Japan, then back to U.S. in 80s Focus on managing process of work and challenge ees to constantly improve quality Slide 11 TQM (cont.) Total Quality Movement (TQM) 3 main concepts: 1. 2. 3. Measures include: Criticisms? Slide 12 OD Interventions (cont.) 2) Management by Objectives (MBO) develop specific org goals Main ideas of MBO: 3) Quality of Work Life (QWL) encourage ee participation to improve sat Main ideas of QWL: 4) Survey feedback: Slide 13 Culture & OD Values/goals of OD fit U.S. culture (democratic, linear, open conflict) How might this differ in other cultures? Cultural diffs in resistance to change affect OD success Slide 14 Porras & Robertson meta-analysis Healthy % report pos changes, but more report no change Few reports of negative effects, but why? Slide 15 OD Assessment Does it work? Criticisms/Difficulties w/assessment Ethical concerns Possibility of employee coercion?