oracle exadata recipes

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  • For your convenience Apress has placed some of the front matter material after the index. Please use the Bookmarks

    and Contents at a Glance links to access them.

  • vContents at a Glance

    About the Author xxxiii

    About the Technical Reviewer xxxv

    Acknowledgments xxxvii

    Introduction xxxix

    Part 1: Exadata Architecture 1Chapter 1: Exadata Hardware 3

    Chapter 2: Exadata Software 33

    Chapter 3: How Oracle Works on Exadata 53

    Part 2: Preparing for Exadata 75Chapter 4: Workload Qualification 77

    Chapter 5: Sizing Exadata 97

    Chapter 6: Preparing for Exadata 139

    Part 3: Exadata Administration 157Chapter 7: Administration and Diagnostics Utilities 159

    Chapter 8: Backup and Recovery 189

    Chapter 9: Storage Administration 239

    Chapter 10: Network Administration 297

    Chapter 11: Patching and Upgrades 331

    Chapter 12: Security 355

  • Contents at a GlanCe


    Part 4: Monitoring Exadata 369Chapter 13: Monitoring Exadata Storage Cells 371

    Chapter 14: Host and Database Performance Monitoring 411

    Part 5: Exadata Software 445Chapter 15: Smart Scan and Cell Offload 447

    Chapter 16: Hybrid Columnar Compression 477

    Chapter 17: I/O Resource Management and Instance Caging 505

    Chapter 18: Smart Flash Cache and Smart Flash Logging 529

    Chapter 19: Storage Indexes 553

    Part 6: Post Implementation Tasks 577Chapter 20: Post-Installation Monitoring Tasks 579

    Chapter 21: Post-Install Database Tasks 599

    Index 633

  • xxxix

    The Oracle Exadata Database Machine is an engineered system designed to deliver extreme performance for all types of Oracle database workloads. Starting with the Exadata V2-2 platform and continuing with the Exadata X2-2, X2-8, X3-2, and X3-8 database machines, many companies have successfully implemented Exadata and realized these extreme performance gains. Exadata has been a game changer with respect to database performance, driving and enabling business transformation, increased profitability, unrivaled customer satisfaction, and improved availability and performance service levels.

    Oracles Exadata Database Machine is a pre-configured engineered system comprised of hardware and software, built to deliver extreme performance for Oracle 11gR2 database workloads. Exadata succeeds by offering an optimally balanced hardware infrastructure with fast components at each layer of the technology stack, as well as a unique set of Oracle software features designed to leverage the high-performing hardware infrastructure by reducing I/O demands.

    As an engineered system, the Exadata Database Machine is designed to allow customers to realize extreme performance with zero application modificationif you have a database capable of running on Oracle 11gR2 and application supported with this database version, many of the features Exadata delivers are able to be capitalized on immediately, without extensive database and systems administrator modification. But, ultimately, Exadata provides the platform to enable extreme performance. As an Exadata administrator, you not only need to learn Exadata architecture and aspects of Exadatas unique software design, but you also need to un-learn some of your legacy Oracle infrastructure habits and thinking. Exadata not only changes the Oracle performance engineers way of thinking, but it can also impose operations, administration, and organizational mindset changes.

    Organizations with an existing Exadata platform are often faced with challenges or questions about how to maximize their investment in terms of performance, management, and administration. Organizations considering an Exadata investment need to understand not only whether Exadata will address performance, consolidation, and IT infrastructure roadmap goals, but also how the Exadata platform will change their day-to-day operational requirements to support Oracle on Exadata. Oracle Exadata Recipes will show you how to maintain and optimize your Exadata environment as well as how to ensure that Exadata is the right fit for your company.

    Who This Book Is ForOracle Exadata Recipes is for Oracle Database administrators, Unix/Linux administrators, storage administrators, backup administrators, network administrators, and Oracle developers who want to quickly learn to develop effective and proven solutions without reading through a lengthy manual scrubbing for techniques. A beginning Exadata administrator will find Oracle Exadata Recipes handy for learning a variety of different solutions for the platform, while advanced Exadata administrators will enjoy the ease of the problem-solution approach to quickly broaden their knowledge of the Exadata platform. Rather than burying you in architectural and design details, this book is for those who need to get work done using effective and proven solutions (and get home in time for dinner).

    The Recipe ApproachAlthough plenty of Oracle Exadata and Oracle 11gR2 references are available today, this book takes a different approach. Youll find an example-based approach in which each chapter is built of sections containing solutions to


  • IntroduCtIon


    specific, real-life Exadata problems. When faced with a problem, you can turn to the corresponding section and find a proven solution that you can reference and implement.

    Each recipe contains a problem statement, a solution, and a detailed explanation of how the solution works. Some recipes provide a more detailed architectural discussion of how Exadata is designed and how the design differs from traditional, non-Exadata Oracle database infrastructures.

    Oracle Exadata Recipes takes an example-based, problem-solution approach in showing how to size, install, configure, manage, monitor, and optimize Oracle database workloads with Oracle Exadata Database Machine. Whether youre an Oracle Database administrator, Unix/Linux administrator, storage administrator, network administrator, or Oracle developer, Oracle Exadata Recipes provides effective and proven solutions to accomplish a wide variety of tasks on the Exadata Database Machine.

    How I Came to Write This BookProfessionally, Ive always been the type to overdocument and take notes. When we embarked on our Exadata Center of Excellence Initiative in 2011, we made it a goal to dig as deeply as we could into the inner workings of the Exadata Database Machine and try our best to understand now just how the machine was built and how it worked, but also how the design differed from traditional Oracle database infrastructures. Through the summer of 2011, I put together dozens of white papers, delivered a number of Exadata webinars, and presented a variety of Exadata topics at various Oracle conferences.

    In early 2012, Jonathan Gennick from Apress approached me about the idea of putting some of this content into something more formal, and the idea of Oracle Exadata Recipes was born. We struggled a bit with the problem-solution approach to the book, mostly because unlike other Oracle development and administration topics, the design of the Exadata Database Machine is such that problems, in the true sense of the word, are difficult to quantify with an engineered system. So, during the project, I had to constantly remind myself (and be reminded by the reviewers and editor) to pose the recipes as specific tasks and problems that an Exadata Database Machine administrator would likely need a solution to. To this end, the recipes in this book are focused on how to perform specific administration or monitoring and measurement techniques on Exadata. Hopefully, weve hit the target and you can benefit from the contents of Oracle Exadata Recipes.

    How We TestedThe solutions in Oracle Exadata Recipes are built using Exadata X2-2 hardware and its associated Oracle software, including Oracle Database 11gR2, Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11gR2, Oracle Automated Storage Management (ASM), and Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC). The solutions in this book contain many test cases and examples built with real databases installed on the Exadata Database Machine and, when necessary, we have provided scripts or code demonstrating how the test cases were constructed.

    We used Centroids Exadata X2-2 Quarter Rack for the recipes, test cases, and solutions in this book. When the project began, Oracles Exadata X3-2 and X3-8 configurations had not yet been released, but in the appropriate sections of the book we have made references to Exadata X3 differences where we felt necessary.

    Source CodeSource code is available for many of the examples in this book. All the numbered listings are included, and each one indicates the specific file name for that listing. You can download the source code from the books catalog page on the Apress web site at

  • Part 1

    Exadata Architecture

    Oracles Exadata Database Machine is an engineered system comprised of high-performing, industry standard, optimally balanced hardware combined with unique Exadata software. Exadatas hardware infrastructure is designed for both performance and availability. Each Exadata Database Machine is configured with a compute grid, a storage grid, and a high-speed storage network. Oracle has designed the Exadata Database Machine to reduce performance bottlenecks; each component in the technology stack is fast, and each grid is well-balanced so that the storage grid can satisfy I/O requests evenly, the compute grid can adequately process high volumes of database transactions, and the network grid c


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