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  • Oracle Exadata Recipes

    A Problem-Solution Approach

    John Clarke

    Apress-

  • Contents

    About the Author xxxiii

    About the Technical Reviewer xxxv

    Acknowledgments xxxvii

    Introduction xxxix

    Part 1: Exadata Architecture 1

    Chapter 1: Exadata Hardware 3

    1-1. Identifying Exadata Database Machine Components 3

    Problem 3

    Solution 3

    How It Works 7

    1-2. Displaying Storage Server Architecture Details 10

    Problem 10

    Solution 10

    How It Works 12

    1-3. Displaying Compute Server Architecture Details 14

    Problem 14

    Solution 14

    How It Works 16

    1-4. Listing Disk Storage Details on the Exadata Storage Servers 17

    Problem 17

    Solution 17

    How It Works 21

    vii

  • CONTENTS

    1-5. Listing Disk Storage Details on the Compute Servers 23

    Problem 23

    Solution 23

    How It Works 27

    1-6. Listing Flash Storage on the Exadata Storage Servers 27

    Problem 27

    Solution 27

    How It Works 29

    1-7. Gathering Configuration Information for the InfiniBandSwitches 29

    Problem 29

    Solution 29

    How It Works 32

    Chapter 2: Exadata Software 33

    2-1. Understanding the Role of Exadata Storage Server Software 33

    Problem 33

    Solution 33

    How It Works 35

    2-2. Validating Oracle 11gR2 Databases on Exadata 35

    Problem 35

    Solution 35

    How It Works 38

    2-3. Validating Oracle 11gR2 Grid Infrastructure on Exadata 38

    Problem 38

    Solution 38

    How It Works 41

    2-4. Locating the Oracle Cluster Registry and Voting Disks on Exadata 42

    Problem 42

    Solution 42

    How It Works 43

    viii

  • CONTENTS

    2-5. Validating Oracle 11gR2 Real Application Clusters Installation and Database

    Storage on Exadata 44

    Problem 44

    Solution 44

    How It Works 47

    2-6. Validating Oracle 11gR2 Real Application Clusters Networking on Exadata 47

    Problem 47

    Solution 47

    How It Works 52

    a Chapter 3: How Oracle Works on Exadata 53

    3-1. Mapping Physical Disks, LUNs, and Cell Disks on the Storage Servers 53

    Problem 53

    Solution 53

    How It Works 56

    3-2. Mapping ASM Disks, Grid Disks, and Cell Disks 58

    Problem 58

    Solution 58

    How It Works 60

    3-3. Mapping Flash Disks to Smart Flash Storage 61

    Problem 61

    Solution 61

    How It Works 62

    3-4. Identifying Cell Server Software Processes 62

    Problem 62

    Solution 63

    How It Works 63

    3-5. Tracing Oracle I/O Requests on Exadata Compute Nodes 65

    Problem 65

    Solution 65

    How It Works 65

    ix

  • CONTENTS

    3-6. Validating That Your Oracle RAC Interconnect Is Using InfiniBand 68

    Problem 68

    Solution 68

    How It Works 70

    3-7. Tracing cellsrv on the Storage Servers 71

    Problem 71

    Solution 71

    How It Works 73

    Part 2: Preparing for Exadata 75

    Chapter 4: Workload Qualification 77

    4-1. Quantifying I/O Characteristics of Your Current Database 77

    Problem 77

    Solution 77

    How It Works 80

    4-2. Conducting a Smart Scan Fit Analysis Using AWR 81

    Problem 81

    Solution 81

    How It Works 85

    4-3. Conducting a Smart Scan Fit Analysis Using Exadata Simulation 87

    Problem 87

    Solution 87

    How It Works 91

    4-4. Performing a Hybrid Columnar Compression Fit Assessment 93

    Problem 93

    Solution 93

    How It Works 95

    Chapter 5: Sizing Exadata 97

    5-1. Determining CPU Requirements 98

    Problem 98

    Solution 98

    How It Works 107

    x

  • CONTENTS

    5-2. Determining lOPs Requirements 108

    Problem 108

    Solution 108

    How It Works 112

    5-3. Determining I/O Bandwidth Requirements 113

    Problem 113

    Solution 113

    How It Works 118

    5-4. Determining ASM Redundancy Requirements 119

    Problem 119

    Solution 119

    How It Works 119

    5-5. Forecasting Storage Capacity 122

    Problem 122

    Solution 122

    How It Works 124

    5-6. Planning for Database Growth 125

    Problem 125

    Solution 125

    How It Works 133

    5-7. Planning for Disaster Recovery 133

    Problem 133

    Solution 133

    How It Works 133

    5-8. Planning for Backups 134

    Problem 134

    Solution 134

    How It Works 135

    5-9. Determining Your Fast Recovery Area and RECO Disk Group Size Requirements 136

    Problem 136

    Solution 136

    How It Works 138

    xi

  • CONTENTS

    Chapter 6: Preparing for Exadata 139

    6-1. Planning and Understanding Exadata Networking 139

    Problem 139

    Solution 139

    How It Works 141

    6-2. Configuring DNS 143

    Problem 143

    Solution 143

    How It Works 144

    6-3. Running checkip.sh 144

    Problem 144

    Solution 144

    How It Works 147

    6-4. Customizing Your InfiniBand Network Configuration 147

    Problem 147

    Solution 147

    How It Works 147

    6-5. Determining Your DATA and RECO Storage Requirements 148

    Problem 148

    Solution 148

    How It Works 149

    6-6. Planning for ASM Disk Group Redundancy 149

    Problem 149

    Solution 149

    How It Works 152

    6-7. Planning Database and ASM Extent Sizes 152

    Problem 152

    Solution 152

    How It Works 152

    xii

  • CONTENTS

    6-8. Completing the Pre-Delivery Survey 153

    Problem 153

    Solution 153

    How It Works 154

    6-9. Completing the Configuration Worksheet 154

    Problem 154

    Solution 154

    How It Works 156

    Part 3: Exadata Administration 157

    Chapter 7: Administration and Diagnostics Utilities 159

    7-1. Logging in to the Exadata Compute and Storage Cells Using SSH 159

    Problem 159

    Solution 159

    How It Works 160

    7-2. Configuring SSH Equivalency 161

    Problem 161

    Solution 161

    How It Works 162

    7-3. Locating Key Configuration Files and Directories on the Cell Servers 162

    Problem 162

    Solution 162

    How It Works 163

    7-4. Locating Key Configuration Files and Directories on the Compute Nodes 164

    Problem 164

    Solution 164

    How It Works 164

    7-5. Starting and Stopping Cell Server Processes 165

    Problem 165

    Solution 165

    How It Works 166

    xiii

  • CONTENTS

    7-6. Administering Storage Cells Using CellCLI 167

    Problem 167

    Solution 167

    How It Works 168

    7-7. Administering Storage Cells Using deli 168

    Problem 168

    Solution 168

    How It Works 170

    7-8. Generating Diagnostics from the ILOM Interface 171

    Problem 171

    Solution 171

    How It Works 173

    7-9. Performing an Exadata Health Check Using exachk 173

    Problem 173

    Solution 173

    How It Works 176

    7-10. Collecting Compute and Cell Server Diagnostics Using the sundiag.sh Utility 176

    Problem 176

    Solution 176

    How It Works 177

    7-11. Collecting RAID Storage Information Using the MegaCLI utility 178

    Problem 178

    Solution 178

    How It Works 179

    7-12. Administering the Storage Cell Network Using ipconf 179

    Problem 179

    Solution 179

    How It Works 180

    7-13. Validating Your InfiniBand Switches with the CheckSWProfile.sh Utility 181

    Problem 181

    Solution 181

    How It Works 182

    xiv

  • CONTENTS

    7-14. Verifying Your InfiniBand Network Topology 182

    Problem 182

    Solution 182

    How It Works 183

    7-15. Diagnosing Your InfiniBand Network 183

    Problem 183

    Solution 183

    How It Works 187

    7-16. Connecting to Your Cisco Catalyst 4948 Switch and Changing Switch Configuration 187

    Problem 187

    Solution 187

    How It Works 188

    Chapter 8: Backup and Recovery 189

    8-1. Backing Up the Storage Servers 189

    Problem 189

    Solution 189

    How It Works 190

    8-2. Displaying the Contents of Your CELLBOOT USB Flash Drive 191

    Problem 191

    Solution 191

    How It Works 192

    8-3. Creating a Cell Boot Image on an External USB Drive 192

    Problem 192

    Solution 193

    How It Works 194

    8-4. Backing Up Your Compute Nodes Using Your Enterprise Backup Software 195

    Problem 195

    Solution 195

    How It Works 196

    XV

  • CONTENTS

    8-5. Backing Up the Compute Servers Using LVM Snapshots 196

    Problem 196

    Solution 197

    How It Works 200

    8-6. Backing Up Your Oracle Databases with RMAN 201

    Problem 201

    Solution 201

    How It Works 201

    8-7. Backing Up the InfiniBand Switches 202

    Problem 202

    Solution 203

    How It Works 204

    8-8. Recovering Storage Cells from Loss of a Single Disk 205

    Problem 205

    Solution 205

    How It Works 208

    8-9. Recovering Storage Cells from Loss of a System Volume Using CELLBOOT Rescue 210

    Problem 210

    Solution 210

    How It Works 221

    8-10. Recovering from a Failed Storage Server Patch 222

    Problem 222

    Solution 222

    How It Works 223

    8-11. Recovering Compute Server Using LVM Snapshots 223

    Problem 223

    Solution 223

    How It Works 228

    8-12. Reimaging a Compute Node 229

    Problem 229

    Solution 229

    How It Works 231

    xvi

  • CONTENTS

    8-13. Recovering Your InfiniBand Switch Configuration 232

    Problem 232

    Solution 232

    How It Works 234

    8-14. Recovering from Loss of Your Oracle Cluster Registry and Voting Disks 235

    Problem 235

    Solution 235

    How It Works 237

    Chapter 9: Storage Administration 239

    9-1. Building ASM Disk