Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed

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Feed for fish and shrimp raised in aquaculture needs high levels of protein and energy. Traditionally feed for carnivorous or omnivorous fish and for shrimp provides these mainly as fishmeal and fish oil, which also contributes to the health promoting aspects of fish and shrimp in the human diet.

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<ul><li> 1. September | October 2012Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry </li> <li> 2. FEATURE Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed by Dr Alex Obach, Managing Director, Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre, NorwayF eed for fish and shrimp raised in Rising demand welfare and produce fish that are good aquaculture needs high levels of Analyses of global demographics, widely toeat,bothintermsofeatingexperience protein and energy. Traditionally publicised by the Food and Agriculture and nutrition. It has been a main focus at feed for carnivorous or omnivo- Organization of the United Nations (FAO), SkrettingAquacultureResearchCentreforrous fish and for shrimp provides these indicateacontinuingexpansionofthepopu- the past decade, for example determiningmainly as fishmeal and fish oil, which lationpassingninebillionby2050.Inparallel, the nutritional value of more than 400also contributes to the health promoting economicdevelopmentisprovidingagreater raw materials. These investigations ledaspects of fish and shrimp in the human proportion with an income that permits to AminoBalance, where balancing ofdiet. themtobemoreselectiveabouttheirdiet. amino acids increases the contribution The main trend is to switch from vegetable suchproteinsmaketomusclegrowth. Aquaculture of fed species today takes staplestoanimalandfishprotein.Athird,6080percentofthefishmealand80per- butlesser,factoristhegrowingawareness Figure 1: Raw material options for fishcent of the fish oil produced, mainly from of the health benefits of fish in the diet, feed (Source Skretting)theindustrialpelagicfisheriesor,inagrow- providing long chain omega-3 polyun- Protein raw Starch Fatsing trend, from the trimmings produced saturated fatty acids (LC PUFAs) EPA materials sourcesduring processing for human consumption. and DHA, fish proteins and importantTrimmingsaredefinedasby-productswhen vitamins andmineralssuch asiodineand Fish meal Fish oil Wheatfish are processed for human consump- selenium. Krill meal Krill oil Barleytion or if whole fish is rejected because At the same time, a growing propor-the quality at the time of landing does not tion of the pelagic catch, which includes algal meal algal oil Sorghummeet requirements for human consump- the industrial fisheries, is going to the Soya products rapeseed oil tapiocation. The International Fishmeal and Fish more lucrative markets of processing for Sunflower meal Soybean oil Potato starchOil Organisation estimates trimmings are human consumption, as processing tech- rapeseed meal Sunflower oil Peasnowusedforaround25percentoffishmeal nology improves and as new consumers Corn gluten Corn oil Faba beansproduction. with different tastes enter the market. Wheat gluten linseed oil oats The industry is, therefore, heavily Simultaneously,theomega-3supplementsdependent on marine resources but pro- industry is competing for the best qual- Faba beans Palm oilduction from these resources cannot be ity fish oils and readily outbids the feed lupins Camelina oilincreasedsustainably,eitherforhumancon- producers. Pea meal Poultry fatsumptionortheindustrialfisheries.Atbest, According to the FAO report rice products lardsustainably managed fisheries will continue The State of World Fisheries and Poultry mealto yield around the current harvest of five Aquaculture 2012, aquaculture is setmillion tonnes of fishmeal and one million to remain one of the fastest grow- Feather mealtonnesoffishoil. ing feed sectors. Having doubled in Blood meal Marineorigin FeedproducerssuchasSkrettingrequire the past decade to almost 60 million Meat and Bone Vegetablerawtheir marine raw material suppliers to tonnes globally, it is expected to grow meal materialsdocumentthatthefishmealandfishoilare by up to 50 percent in the next. This Microbial Animalderivedfromresponsiblymanagedandsus- makesidentifyingalternative,sustainable protein by-productstainablefisheriesanddonotincludeendan- sources of protein and energy a major Insect mealgeredspecies.Therefore,tomeetagrowing priority. Researchers are looking for Otherraw Worm mealdemand for fish, aquaculture must identify alternatives that will provide low feed materialsalternativestothesemarineingredients. conversion ratios, maintain high fish DDGS 22 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012 </li> <li> 3. FEATURERecent advance fish feed was approved by a qualified major- Atlanticsalmonprovidedweredividedand Researchprogresstodatemeansfishmeal ity of EU member states, meaning that non- fedononeofthreefeeds:levels in feeds for species such as Atlantic ruminantPAPswillbeauthorisedforfishfeed Conventional grower feed (presalmonhavebeenreduced.Untilrecently25 fromJune1,2013. MicroBalance): 25 percent fishmeal and 13percentappearedtobethelimitbelowwhich percentfishoilwithEPA+DHAcomprisingperformancesuffered,intermsofgrowthrate Trial results about10percentoftotalfattyacids.andfeedconversionratio. A22-monthtrialwithAtlanticsalmonin OptiLine from Skretting Norway (using In2010researchersatSkrettingARCfinal- a commercial scale farm in Norway dem- MicroBalance): 15 percent fishmeal and 13isedanewconceptknownasMicroBalance. onstrated theMicroBalance technology is based on the practicality ofidentification of several essential micro-nutri- MicroBalance. Itents in fishmeal that were shown to be the followedacom-limiting factors, not the amount of fishmeal. plete genera-Supplementing the diet with the right bal- tion of salmonance of essential micro-nutrients and other from smolt tofunctional micro-ingredients helped reduce harvest. Thefishmealcontentinfishfeed. trial was jointly Applying the concept enabled Skretting organised bycompaniestoproducecommerciallysuccess- Marine Harvestfulfeedswithaslittleas15percentfishmeal and Skrettingwithout detracting from feed performance, and conductedfish welfare or end product quality. A key at the Centreadvantage of MicroBalance is the flexibil- for Aquacultureity to adapt the raw material combination in Competenceresponse to prices, lessening for farmers the (CAC) inimpactsofpricevolatility. Norway from Today Skretting can formulate fish feed May 2009 towith levels of fishmeal as low as 510 February 2011percent. Fishmeal can be replaced solely by inclusive. CACvegetablerawmaterialsorbyacombination isacommercial-ofvegetablerawmaterialsandnon-ruminant scale R&amp;D farmprocessed animal proteins (PAPs). It should managed bybenotedthatPAPsarewidelyusedincoun- Marine Harvesttries outside the EU and provide extremely and is equippedgood quality, safe nutrition to supplement to measure allfishmeal. operational Typical examples include blood meal also parameters justknown as haemoglobin meal, poultry meal, as precisely asand feather meal. PAPs were banned from in a small-scaleanimal feed and fish feed in the EU follow- research sta-ing the BSE crisis in the 1990s. Recently a tion. A totalproposal for the reintroduction of PAPs in of 780,000 September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 23 </li> <li> 4. FEATURE example, following the introduction of the MicroBalanceconcept,thefishoilwillcertainly bethedeterminingfactorfortheFFDR.The dependency on wild forage fish resources should be calculated for both FM and FO usingthefollowingformulae. FFDRm=(%fishmealinfeedfromforage fisheries)x(eFCR)/22.2 FFDRo = (% fish oil in feed from forage fisheries)x(eFCR)/5.0 Where: eFCR is the Economic Feed Conversion Ratio; the quantity of feed used to produce thequantityoffishharvested. Only fishmeal and fish oil that is derived Figure 2: Supply and use of fish oil (Source IFFO and Skretting) directlyfromapelagicfishery(e.g.anchoveta) istobeincludedinthecalculationofFFDR.percentfishoilwithEPA+DHAcomprising andDHA,bothforthefishandforthehealth Theamountoffishmealinthedietiscalcu-about10percentoftotalfattyacids. benefitsoffishasfood. latedbacktolivefishweightbyusingayield Experimental OptiLine (using SecondlytheEUAquaMaxproject,coordi- of22.2%.Thisisanassumedaverageyield.IfMicroBalance): 15 percent fishmeal and nine natedbyNIFESinNorwaywith32international theyieldisknowntobedifferentthatfigurepercentfishoilwithEPA+DHAcomprising partnersaroundtheworldincludingSkretting shouldbeused.abouteightpercentoftotalfattyacids. ARC,addressedthisissuedirectly,developing Theamountoffishoilinthedietiscalcu- The parameters monitored were diets with low levels of both fishmeal and latedbacktolivefishweightbyusingayieldofgrowth, FCR, quality, health, sustainability fish oil and thus reducing the fish-in fish-outfivepercentThisisanassumedaverageyield.and food safety. The total harvest weight ratios.Thiscom-was 3,517 tonnes. After the harvest the plements work table 1: total production of fed species in 2000, 2005, 201...</li></ul>