Oppositional Concepts in Computational Intelligence (Studies in Computational Intelligence, Volume 155)

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<ul><li><p>Hamid R. Tizhoosh and Mario Ventresca (Eds.)</p><p>Oppositional Concepts in Computational Intelligence</p></li><li><p>Studies in Computational Intelligence,Volume 155</p><p>Editor-in-ChiefProf. Janusz KacprzykSystems Research InstitutePolish Academy of Sciencesul. Newelska 601-447WarsawPolandE-mail: kacprzyk@ibspan.waw.pl</p><p>Further volumes of this series can be found on our homepage:springer.com</p><p>Vol. 133.Manuel Grana and Richard J. Duro (Eds.)Computational Intelligence for Remote Sensing, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-79352-6</p><p>Vol. 134. Ngoc Thanh Nguyen and Radoslaw Katarzyniak (Eds.)New Challenges in Applied Intelligence Technologies, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-79354-0</p><p>Vol. 135. Hsinchun Chen and Christopher C.Yang (Eds.)Intelligence and Security Informatics, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-69207-2</p><p>Vol. 136. Carlos Cotta,Marc Sevauxand Kenneth Sorensen (Eds.)Adaptive and Multilevel Metaheuristics, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-79437-0</p><p>Vol. 137. Lakhmi C. Jain,Mika Sato-Ilic,Maria Virvou,George A. Tsihrintzis,Valentina Emilia Balasand Canicious Abeynayake (Eds.)Computational Intelligence Paradigms, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-79473-8</p><p>Vol. 138. Bruno Apolloni,Witold Pedrycz, Simone Bassisand Dario MalchiodiThe Puzzle of Granular Computing, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-79863-7</p><p>Vol. 139. Jan DrugowitschDesign and Analysis of Learning Classifier Systems, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-79865-1</p><p>Vol. 140. Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, Lakhmi C. Jainand N. Ichalkaranje (Eds.)New Advances in Virtual Humans, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-79867-5</p><p>Vol. 141. Christa Sommerer, Lakhmi C. Jainand Laurent Mignonneau (Eds.)The Art and Science of Interface and Interaction Design (Vol. 1),2008ISBN 978-3-540-79869-9</p><p>Vol. 142. George A. Tsihrintzis,Maria Virvou, Robert J. Howlettand Lakhmi C. Jain (Eds.)New Directions in Intelligent Interactive Multimedia,2008ISBN 978-3-540-68126-7</p><p>Vol. 143. Uday K. Chakraborty (Ed.)Advances in Differential Evolution, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-68827-3</p><p>Vol. 144.Andreas Fink and Franz Rothlauf (Eds.)Advances in Computational Intelligence in Transport, Logistics,and Supply Chain Management, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-69024-5</p><p>Vol. 145.Mikhail Ju.Moshkov,Marcin Piliszczukand Beata ZieloskoPartial Covers, Reducts and Decision Rules in Rough Sets, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-69027-6</p><p>Vol. 146. Fatos Xhafa and Ajith Abraham (Eds.)Metaheuristics for Scheduling in Distributed ComputingEnvironments, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-69260-7</p><p>Vol. 147. Oliver KramerSelf-Adaptive Heuristics for Evolutionary Computation, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-69280-5</p><p>Vol. 148. Philipp LimbourgDependability Modelling under Uncertainty, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-69286-7</p><p>Vol. 149. Roger Lee (Ed.)Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking andParallel/Distributed Computing, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-70559-8</p><p>Vol. 150. Roger Lee (Ed.)Software Engineering Research, Management andApplications, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-70774-5</p><p>Vol. 151. Tomasz G. Smolinski,Mariofanna G.Milanovaand Aboul-Ella Hassanien (Eds.)Computational Intelligence in Biomedicine and Bioinformatics,2008ISBN 978-3-540-70776-9</p><p>Vol. 152. Jaroslaw StepaniukRough Granular Computing in Knowledge Discovery and DataMining, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-70800-1</p><p>Vol. 153. Carlos Cotta and Jano van Hemert (Eds.)Recent Advances in Evolutionary Computation forCombinatorial Optimization, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-70806-3</p><p>Vol. 154. Oscar Castillo, Patricia Melin, Janusz Kacprzyk andWitold Pedrycz (Eds.)Soft Computing for Hybrid Intelligent Systems, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-70811-7</p><p>Vol. 155. Hamid R. Tizhoosh and MarioVentresca (Eds.)Oppositional Concepts in Computational Intelligence, 2008ISBN 978-3-540-70826-1</p></li><li><p>Hamid R. TizhooshMarioVentresca(Eds.)</p><p>Oppositional Concepts inComputational Intelligence</p><p>123</p></li><li><p>Prof. Hamid R. TizhooshUniversity of WaterlooSystems Design Engineering200 University AvenueWestWaterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1CanadaEmail: tizhoosh@uwaterloo.ca</p><p>Dr.Mario VentrescaUniversity of WaterlooSystems Design Engineering200 University AvenueWestWaterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1CanadaEmail: mventres@pami.uwaterloo.ca</p><p>ISBN 978-3-540-70826-1 e-ISBN 978-3-540-70829-2</p><p>DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-70829-2</p><p>Studies in Computational Intelligence ISSN 1860949X</p><p>Library of Congress Control Number: 2008931300</p><p>c 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg</p><p>This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of thematerial is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations,recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in databanks.Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions ofthe German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for usemust always be obtained from Springer.Violations are liable to prosecution under the GermanCopyright Law.</p><p>The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publicationdoes not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt fromthe relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.</p><p>Typeset &amp; Cover Design: Scientific Publishing Services Pvt. Ltd., Chennai, India.</p><p>Printed in acid-free paper</p><p>9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p><p>springer.com</p></li><li><p>For free inquiry and coexistence of opposites</p></li><li><p>Preface</p><p>The opposite of a correct statement is a false statement. But the oppositeof a profound truth may well be another profound truth.</p><p> Niels Bohr</p><p>This volume is motivated in part by the observation that opposites permeateeverything around us, in some form or another. Its study has attracted theattention of countless minds for at least 2500 years. However, due to the lackof an accepted mathematical formalism for opposition it has not been explicitlystudied to any great length in fields outside of philosophy and logic. This, despitethe fact that we observe opposition everywhere in nature, our minds seem todivide the world into entities and opposite entities; indeed we use oppositioneveryday. We have become so accustomed to opposition that its existence isaccepted, not usually questioned and its importance is constantly overlooked.</p><p>On one hand, this volume is a fist attempt to bring together researcherswho are inquiring into the complementary nature of systems and processes and,on the other hand, provide some elementary components for a framework toestablish a formalism for opposition-based computing. From a computationalintelligence perspective, many successful opposition-based concepts have beenin existence for a long time. It is not our intention to recast these existingmethods, rather to elucidate that, while diverse, they all share the commonalityof opposition - in one form or another, either implicitly or explicitly. To thisend, we have attempted to provide rough guidelines to understand what makesconcepts oppositional.</p><p>The editors are convinced that in spite of the excellence of contributors, thisvolume cannot claim completeness simply due to the difficulties that each andevery new scientific endeavor experiences. However, we profoundly believe thatsince the future of scientific research cannot ignore opposition, we can embracethe inescapable imperfections and are grateful to all colleagues who have con-tributed to this work.</p><p>Waterloo, ON, Canada Hamid R. TizhooshMay 1, 2008 Mario Ventresca</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>1 IntroductionH.R. Tizhoosh, Mario Ventresca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1</p><p>Part I: Motivations and Theory</p><p>2 Opposition-Based ComputingH.R. Tizhoosh, Mario Ventresca, Shahryar Rahnamayan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11</p><p>3 Antithetic and Negatively Associated Random Variablesand Function MaximizationDon L. McLeish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29</p><p>4 Opposition and CircularityFlorencio G. Asenjo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45</p><p>Part II: Search and Reasoning</p><p>5 Collaborative vs. Conflicting Learning, Evolution andArgumentationLus Moniz Pereira, Alexandre Miguel Pinto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61</p><p>6 Proof-Number Search and Its VariantsH. Jaap van den Herik, Mark H.M. Winands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91</p><p>Part III: Optimization</p><p>7 Improving the Exploration Ability of Ant-BasedAlgorithmsAlice Ralickas Malisia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121</p></li><li><p>X Contents</p><p>8 Differential Evolution Via Exploiting Opposite PopulationsShahryar Rahnamayan, H.R. Tizhoosh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143</p><p>9 Evolving Opposition-Based Pareto Solutions:Multiobjective Optimization Using Competitive CoevolutionTse Guan Tan, Jason Teo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161</p><p>Part IV: Learning</p><p>10 Bayesian Ying-Yang Harmony Learning for Local FactorAnalysis: A Comparative InvestigationLei Shi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209</p><p>11 The Concept of Opposition and Its Use in Q-Learningand Q() TechniquesMaryam Shokri, H.R. Tizhoosh, Mohamed S. Kamel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233</p><p>12 Two Frameworks for Improving Gradient-Based LearningAlgorithmsMario Ventresca, H.R. Tizhoosh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255</p><p>Part V: Real World Applications</p><p>13 Opposite Actions in Reinforced Image SegmentationFarhang Sahba, H.R. Tizhoosh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287</p><p>14 Opposition Mining in Reservoir ManagementMasoud Mahootchi, H.R. Tizhoosh, Kumaraswamy Ponnambalam . . . . . . . 299</p><p>Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323</p><p>Author Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327</p></li><li><p>List of Contributors</p><p>Florencio G. AsenjoUniversity of Pittsburgh,P.O.Box 10244,Pittsburgh, PA 15232-0244,USAfgasenjo@pitt.edu</p><p>Mohamed S. KamelDepartment of Electrical andComputer Engineering,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1Canadamkamel@uwaterloo.ca</p><p>Masoud MahootchiDepartment of Systems DesignEngineering,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1Canadammahootc@engmail.uwaterloo.ca</p><p>Alice Ralickas MalisiaDepartment of Systems DesignEngineering,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1Canadaamalisia@alumni.uwaterloo.ca</p><p>Don L. McLeishDepartment of Statistics and ActuarialScience,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1Canadadlmcleish@math.uwaterloo.ca</p><p>Lus Moniz PereiraCentro de Inteligencia Artificial,Universidade Nova de Lisboa,2829-516 Caparica,Portugallmp@di.fct.unl.pt</p><p>Alexandre Miguel PintoCentro de Inteligencia Artificial,Universidade Nova de Lisboa,2829-516 Caparica,Portugalamp@di.fct.unl.pt</p><p>Kumaraswamy PonnambalamDepartment of Systems DesignEngineering,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1Canadaponnu@vlsi.uwaterloo.ca</p></li><li><p>XII List of Contributors</p><p>Shahryar RahnamayanFaculty of Engineering and AppliedScience,University of OntarioInstitute of Technology (UOIT),Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4 CanadaShahryar.Rahnamayan@uoit.ca</p><p>Farhang SahbaDepartment of Electrical andComputer Engineering,University of TorontoToronto, Ontario, M5S 3G4Canadafarhang.sahba@utoronto.ca</p><p>Lei ShiDepartment of Computer Science andEngineering,The Chinese University of Hong Kong,Shatin, NT, Hong Kong,Chinashil@cse.cuhk.edu.hk</p><p>Maryam ShokriDepartment of Systems DesignEngineering,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1Canadamshokri@engmail.uwaterloo.ca</p><p>Tse Guan TanCentre for Artificial Intelligence,School of Engineering and InformationTechnology,Universiti Malaysia Sabah,Locked Bag No. 2073, 88999 KotaKinabalu, Sabah,Malaysiatseguantan@gmail.com</p><p>Jason TeoCentre for Artificial Intelligence,School of Engineering and InformationTechnology,Universiti Malaysia Sabah,Locked Bag No. 2073, 88999 KotaKinabalu, Sabah,Malaysiajtwteo@ums.edu.my</p><p>Hamid R. TizhooshDepartment of Systems DesignEngineering,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1Canadatizhoosh@uwaterloo.ca</p><p>H. Jaap van den HerikTilburg centre for Creative Computing(TiCC)Faculty of Humanities,Tilburg University P.O. Box 90153,5000 LE Tilburg, The NetherlandsH.J.vdnHerik@uvt.nl</p><p>Mario VentrescaDepartment of Systems DesignEngineering,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1Canadamventres@pami.uwaterloo.ca</p><p>Mark H.M. WinandsMaastricht ICT Competence Centre(MICC)Faculty of Humanities and Sciences,Maastricht UniversityP.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht,The Netherlandsm.winands@micc.unimaas.nl</p></li><li><p>1</p><p>Introduction</p><p>H.R. Tizhoosh and Mario Ventresca</p><p>Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada{tizhoosh,mventres}@pami.uwaterloo.ca</p><p>1.1 Introduction</p><p>Due to the omnipresence of opposition in the real world, regardless in what intensityand form we may encounter its diverse presence, the nature of entities and their oppositeentities might be understood in different ways. A look at a whole set of words describingoppositeness is an indicator of this diversity: antipodal, antithetical, contradictory, con-trary, diametrical, polar, antipodean, adverse, disparate, negative, hostile, antagonistic,unalike, antipathetic, counter, converse, inverse, reverse, dissimilar, divergent. All thesewords describe some notion of opposition and can be employed in different contexts toportray different relationships.</p><p>Recent theories based on our perceptions of the apparent contrary/opposite nature ofthe real world have begun to provide a formal framework within the neurological andbehavioral sciences [18, 19, 20]. More specifically, these theories are concerned withhow cognition and behavior arise from dynamical self-organization processes withinthe brain. Oppositional structures in linguistic information processing and communica-tion play a pivotal role and any attempt to imitate human information processing with-out a framework for oppositional thinking would be futile. Furthermore, since much ofcomputational intelligence is inspired from theories of how the brain works it seemsreasonable to also examine the usefulness of opposition within the computational intel-ligence context.</p><p>The next section will provide a discussion regarding the understanding of oppositiona long with some real world examples. Then, the following section provides a briefoverview of attempts to formalize and explicitly utilize the concept of opposition. Weconclude this introduction with a description of the relationship each chapter has withoppostional concepts.</p><p>1.2 What Is Opposition?</p><p>Opposition is concerned with the relationship between entities, objects or their abstrac-tions of the same nature which are completely different in some manner. For instance,cold and hot both describe a certain temperature perception (are of the same kind),</p><p>H.R. Tizhoosh, M. Ventresca (Eds.): Oppos. Concepts in Comp. Intel., SCI 155, pp. 18, 2008.springerlink.com c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008</p></li><li><p>2 H.R. Tizhoosh and M. Ve...</p></li></ul>