Opening Questions (1/5/11) 1) Who was Count Cavour and why is he important to Italian unification? 2) How did Giuseppe Garibaldi help the Italian unification

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  • Slide 1
  • Opening Questions (1/5/11) 1) Who was Count Cavour and why is he important to Italian unification? 2) How did Giuseppe Garibaldi help the Italian unification process? What was the name of his army that he started out with? 3) What country was a barrier to Italian Unification and why?
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  • Unification of Germany Role of Prussia and Otto von Bismarck
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  • Origins of Unification 1.Ideals of French Revolution and Enlightenment 2.After the Congress of Vienna (1815) Prussia becomes a major power Gains power over several German States Prussia will lead the charge to unite Germany 3.Germany was a group of independent States Each with their own currency, laws, and rulers Prussia influence while Austrias influence
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  • First Major Step towards Unification (Combine Economies) 1.Reform economies to combine them Abolished tariffs between German States and Prussian Provinces A.Junkers German Aristocratic Land Owners (Lead the charge to unify economy) a)Wanted to bring in new economic growth B.Zollverian German Customs Union (1828) a)Made prices lower and standardized them b)Ushered in industrialization in Germany c)Unified measurements, weights, and currency
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  • Otto von Bismarck of Prussia Named Prime Minister of Prussia in 1861 Appointed by William I of Prussia Staunch Conservative (opposes democracy and liberalism) Goals of Bismarck Unify German States with Kingdom of Prussia Modernize army (bigger, stronger, more advanced) Make Prussia and Germany the dominant power in Europe
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  • Realpolitik Definition - to act with little regard to ethics, morals or legalities when it comes to politics a)A Machiavellian concept the ends justify the means b)Bismarck is a huge advocate of this policy i.Uses this policy to justify his actions ii.Antagonizes Austria and France in order to start wars that will help strengthen Prussia
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  • 3 Wars of Unification 2 main goals of these wars 1)Drive out all Austrian influence over German Confederation 2)Distract the public from liberal protest by using foreign conflict The Three Main Wars 1 st 1864 Danish Wars 2 nd 1866 Seven Weeks War 3 rd 1870 Franco Prussian War
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  • Details of Three Wars Danish Wars 1864 Denmark vs. Prussia/Austria Purpose fought to take back two territories from Denmark Outcome Prussia gets one province, Austria gets the other, done on purpose to create conflict Goal Accomplished Bismarck creates a conflict between Austria and Prussia Seven Weeks War 1866 Prussia vs. Austria Purpose to push Austria out of Germany How - convinces France to be neutral, Italy is an ally of Prussia Prussia uses advance military to crush Austria Outcome Treaty of Prague Austria pushed out of Germany, Italy gets Venetia, Prussia dominates Germany States Effects Shocks Europe and changes balance of power, use of modern weaponry War is industrialized (use of railways, telegraph, weapons) Franco/Prussian War - 1870 France vs. Prussia Purpose Way to unite North and south Germany How Bismarck tricks France into declaring war, South Germany unites to confront France Outcome Prussia easily defeats France, Jan 18 th 1871 N. and S. Germany unite Effects - Crowned William I as Kaiser in the Palace of Versailles (angers French), Bismarck named 1 st Chancellor Iron Chancellor, Germany is dangerously powerful
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  • Post Seven Weeks War Map
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  • Crowning of Wilhelm I as 1 st Kaiser of Germany - The room pictured is the hall of mirrors in the Palace of Versailles Think about how the French People felt
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  • Germany as a nation Germany creates a federal form of government a)Federal Government controls national defense, foreign affairs, and commerce b)State governments control local taxation, law enforcement, and education i.Much like the US set up their federal government ii.Very efficient, Germany expands grows rapidly, continues to become very powerful
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  • German Industrialization Industrializes rapidly a)Lots of natural resources b)Newest technology c)Advanced techniques and methods By 1914 (start of WWI) Germany out produces every major European country a)Germany becomes dangerously powerful and rich in the process b)Greatly upsets the balance of power in Europe
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  • Liberals conflict w/ Bismarck Catholics no religious tolerance for them Kulturkrampf = Culture Struggle Meant to limit the influence and rights of Catholics Extremely unpopular Fails by 1887 Socialists after industrialization a)Gained continual support from citizens b)Bismarck reacts by giving in to some demands i.Ex Insurance by employers, limiting work hours, pensions for retired or injured workers, etc c)Socialist still keep gaining some limited power
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  • Downfall of Bismarck 1)1888 William I dies 2)William II takes power (not the son) i.Wants absolute control (clashes with Bismarck) a)Bismarck attempts to resign as a threat i.1890 William II accepts the resignation though 3)William II pursues his own goals a)Ex- expansion, imperialistic goals, strong navy i.By the 1900s he has created conflict with most of Western Europe (especially Britain and France)
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  • End of Day Question (1.5.11) 1) How did Germany first try to unify the country? What group of people pushed for this first step in unification? 2) Give me a definition of Realpolitik in your own words? Create an example of Realpolitik.


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