open educational resources and open access: promise or peril for higher education

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Keynote at EL@IES conference- delivered via videoconference. Dec 17, 2013


  • Open Educational Resources and Open Access: Promise or Peril for Higher Education Terry Anderson, Professor, Athabasca University Canada Dec. 2013
  • Open Scholar the Open Scholar is someone who makes their intellectual projects and processes digitally visible and who invites and encourages ongoing criticism of their work and secondary uses of any or all parts of it--at any stage of its development. Gideon Burton - Academic Evolution Blog
  • Presentation Overview Open Scholarship Copyright Open Educational Resources Open Texts Open Data Open Article Publishing Creative Commons Licensing Open Practices and Policies
  • Open Scholars Create: A new type of education work maximizing: Social learning Media richness Participatory and connectivist pedagogies Ubiquity and persistence Transparency Open data collection and research process Network Creation
  • Definitions of Open on the Web (From Google) affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut or closed; affording free passage or access; open to or in view of all; accessible to all; assailable: not defended or capable of being defended loose: (of textures) full of small openings or gaps; start to operate or function not brought to a conclusion; not sealed or having been unsealed
  • Something there is that doesnt love a a wall, that wants it down American Poet Robert Frost
  • publishing online is not a viable option as the product would not have permanency, scholarly recognition, or the prestige of a paper publication. my PhD supervisor, 1993
  • 50% of Canadas Scholarly Publications will be out of business within two years due to open access competition. Athabasca Pres. Frits Pannecock
  • Cannot copyright: ideas, facts, data or useful articles (these are patented)
  • Indeed, only 1,000 new works appeared annually in England at that time -- 10 times fewer than in Germany -- and this was not without consequences. EckhardHffner believes it was the chronically weak book market that caused England, the colonial power, to fritter away its head start within the span of a century, while the underdeveloped, agrarian state of Germany caught up rapidly, becoming an equally developed industrial nation by 1900. UK Copyright Law 1710 Prussia - 1837
  • Open Access Definition Budapest Open Access Initiative (2001). free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself.
  • Open Scholars Use and Contribute Open Educational Resources Because it saves time!!!
  • OER Barriers to Adoption Few instructor incentives Publisher push back Quality concerns not invented here syndrome Lack of open culture and practice
  • Open texts
  • We cant afford textbooks Textbook prices skyrocketed 82% between 2002 and 2012, average student budget for books and supplies has grown to $1,207 annually (USA figures). Current Bill to support open texts across US, goal of reducing costs by 80% Washington State program since 2010 has saved students $5.4 million versus State cost of less than $1.8 Million All students get open text books!
  • South Africa school text books produces millions of texts -=
  • Are commercial e-texts the answer?
  • DRM (Digital Rights Management) You CANNOT Copy & paste, annotate, highlight Change Text to speech Format change Move material Print out Move geographically Use after expiry date Resell
  • But our device is our PROPERTY DRM restricts our freedom Can we not own & control our own property?
  • Commercial Learning Service or Rent-a-book student owns nothing, can share nothing, save nothing, sell nothing subscription ends ALL ends publishers own student data, notes, highlights students cant transfer data
  • US Version cost per month +100 000 movies $ 7.99 +48 000 TV shows $ 7.99 +20 000 000 songs TOTAL $ 9.99 $25.97 ONE Biology text $20.25 -David Wiley
  • Open Scholars License, Use (and re-use ) Open Data
  • There is no turning back the clock on our interconnected world, but we could jeopardize its benefits if we fail to invest in a trusted data environment. -Ellen Richey, Chief Enterprise Risk Officer, Visa, USA in WEF Blog on Big Data
  • Open Scholars Filter and Share With Others
  • If it is not licensed, it is not open
  • Open OPEN open openwashing: code that requires a patent license cannot be open source, so Cisco should really stop using that term. It's making the source code available, and that's good news, but it's not the same. Glyn Moody
  • Scholars Researching Openness
  • Open Scholars Know How to License Their Work for Maximum Impact
  • CC Licensing Options
  • If Google cannot find a faculty scholar's work or the work of the scholar's colleagues, department, or institution, then it is essentially irrelevant even nonexistent because people will not find, read, apply, or build on the work if they cannot locate it via a quick Google searchLowenthal & Dunlap (2012) Lowenthal, P., & Dunlap, J. (2012). Intentional Web Presence: 10 SEO Strategies Every Academic Needs to Know. Educause.
  • Journal Publishing Until recently, largely controlled by for profit companies profits of the journal publishing sectors of the major publishers business are their most profitable divisions. For example, the worlds largest publisher Elsevier made 724m ($1.1 billion) on revenues of 2 billionan operating-profit margin of 36%.
  • major periodical subscriptions, especially to electronic journals published by historically key providers, cannot be sustained: continuing these subscriptions on their current footing is financially untenable. Doing so would seriously erode collection efforts in many other areas, already compromised. The Faculty Advisory Council Date: April 17, 2012
  • Open Access Publication Emerges Journal TOCs lists over 23,170 journals - 9,986 OA titles make up 43% of the overall content. (DOAJ 2013) Publishing and Review Systems: Open Journal System Canadian, (SFU) Complete submission, review, copyedit, analytics and publication system Over 7,000 journals using OJS (as of 2012)
  • Predatory Open Access Journals those that unprofessionally exploit the author-pays model of open-access publishing (Gold OA) for their own profit. Typically, these publishers: spam professional email lists, broadly soliciting article submissions for the clear purpose of gaining income. operate essentially as vanity presses, typically have a low article acceptance threshold, Have a false-front or non-existent peer review process. Jeff Beall
  • But Also Legitamet user-f But also, Legitimate Author Fee- OA Journals PLOS - Public Library of Science since 2006 Charges authors about $1500/US per article
  • Publishers


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