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OILSEEDS

OILSEEDS AND RUBBEROILSEEDSECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF OILSEEDSMAJOR OILSEEDS GROWN IN INDIAGEOGRAPHICAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE MAJOR OILSEEDSAREAS OF PRODUCTIONMETHOD OF CULTIVATIONINTRODUCTION TO OILSEEDSVERY IMPORTANT COMMERCIAL CROPS IN INDIA.

INDIA IS THE LEADING OILSEEDS PRODUCER IN THE WORLD.PRODUCTION HOWEVER IS FALLING SHORT LEADING TO IMPORTING OILSEEDS.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF OILSEEDSTHE OIL EXTRACTED FROM OILSEEDS FORMS AN IMPORTANT ITEM OF OUR DIET.EXTRACTED OIL IS USED AS RAW MATERIAL FOR MANUFACTURING PAINTS, VARNISHES, SOAPS, PERFUMES, LUBRICANTS, etc.OIL CAKE IS A BY-PRODUCT OBTAINED AFTER THE EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM OILSEEDS AND IS AN EXCELLENT CATTLE FEED.OIL CAKES ARE ALSO USED AS FERTILIZERS.MAJOR OILSEEDS GROWN IN INDIAGROUNDNUTSESAMUMRAPESEEDMUSTARDLINSEEDCASTOR

GROUNDNUTINDIA IS THE LARGEST PRODUCER OF GROUNDNUT IN THE WORLD.IT IS A TROPICAL CROP HENCE GROWS WELL OVER THE PENINSULAR PLATEAU.GROUNDNUT ALSO KNOWN AS PEANUT OR MONKEYNUT.GROUNDNUT KERNELS ARE RICH IN PROTIENS AND VITAMINS.USED FOR MANUFACTURE OF EDIBLE OIL.USED IN MANUFACTURE OF SOAP, CANDLES, ARTIFICIAL LEATHER.USED AS AN IMPORTANT ROTATION CROP AS IT HELPS IN INCREASING SOIL FERTILITY.

GEOGRAPHICAL REQUIREMENTS OF GROUNDNUTTEMPERATURE : BETWEEN 22 TO 28 DEGREE CELSIUS.RAINFALL : IS A DROUGHT RESISTANT CROP HENCE CAN GROW IN AREAS WITH LESS RAINFALL WELL DISTRIBUTED DURING THE FLOWERING STAGE.SOIL : LIGHT SANDY SOIL, RED SOIL, BLACK SOIL.IS A LEGUMINOUS VARIETY CULTIVATED AS BOTH KHARIF AND RABI CROP

METHODS OF CULTIVATIONSOWING :SOWN USUALLY BETWEEN JUNE AND JULY. WHEN THE FLOWERS APPEAR,THE STALKS BEND DOWNWARDS AND FORCE THE SEEDPODS INTO THE GROUND WHERE THEY MATURE.HARVESTING :BETWEEN OCTOBER AND DECEMBER.WARM DRY SEASON ESSENTIAL FOR RIPENING.PODS ARE STRIPPED FROM THE VINES AND DRIED IN THE SUN.AREAS OF PRODUCTIONGUJRAT LEADING PRODUCERTAMIL NADUANDHRA PRADESHKARNATAKAMUSTARD OR RAI AND RAPESEED OR SARSONARE RABI CROPS GROWN IN ROTATION WITH WHEAT.GEOGRAPHICAL REQUIREMENTS SAME AS FOR WHEAT CROP.ARE PLANTED WITH WHEAT AND HARVESTED A LITTLE BEFORE WHEAT WHEN THE CROP TURNS YELLOW.TEMPERATURE = ARE WINTER CROPS AND GROW WELL IN TEMPERATURE RANGING BETWEEN 10 TO 20 DEGREE CELSIUS.RAINFALL = BETWEEN 50 TO 100 cm IS ADEQUATE.SOIL = GROW WELL IN ALLUVIAL SOIL.IMPORTANCE OF MUSTARDUSED AS COOKING MEDIUM IN NORTH INDIA.USED IN FLAVOURING PICKLES.TENDER LEAVES USED AS GREEN VEGETABLE/ SAAGOIL CAKE IS USED AS CATTLE FEED.

AREAS OF MUSTARD PRODUCTIONRAJASTHANHARYANAUTTAR PRADESHPUNJABASSAMWEST BENGALBIHARORISSAMAHARASHTRASESAMUMGROWN IN ROTATION WITH OTHER CROPS LIKE JOWAR OR RAGIALSO KNOWN AS TIL OR GINGELLY.USED AS COOKING OIL.USED FOR MEDICINAL PURPOSES.IS EATEN RAW,ROASTED OR MIXED WITH JAGGERY / GUR OR SUGAR AS THESE ARE RICH SOURCES OF PROTIEN, CARBOHYDRATE AND MINERALS.

GEOGRAPHICAL REQUIREMENTS OF SESAMUM / SESAMEGROWN AS BOTH KHARIF AND RABI CROP.TEMPERATURE = 21 TO 23 DEGREE CELSIUSRAINFALL = 40 TO 50 cm SUFFICIENT/ CANNOT WITHSTAND DROUGHT OR HEAVY RAIN.SOIL = WELL DRAINED LOAMY AND BLACK COTTON SOIL.

METHOD OF CULTIVATION - SESAMUMPLANTS GROW TO A HEIGHT OF 0.5 TO 1.5 METRES.ARE READY FOR HARVEST WHEN THEY TURN YELLOW IN ABOUT 3 TO 4 MONTHS.AREAS OF PRODUCTION =RAJASTHAN, GUJRAT, ANDHRA PRADESH

LINSEEDOBTAINED FROM A FIBRE PLANT KNOWN AS FLAX.FLAX WAS GROWN WIDELY IN THE COOL TEMPERATE REGIONS OF EUROPE AND WAS TRADITIONALLY USED FOR CLOTHING AND HOUSEHOLD LINEN.LINSEED OIL IS UNSUITABLE FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION.USES OF LINSEED =HAS A UNIQUE DRYING PROPERTY AND IS USED FOR PAINTS, VARNISHES, PRINTING INK, LINOLEUM, WATER PROOF FABRICS.LINSEED OILCAKES ARE USED AS CATTLE FEED.

GEOGRAPHICAL REQUIREMENTS OF LINSEEDIS GROWN AS A RABI CROP.TEMPERATURE = NEEDS COOL , MOIST CLIMATE WITH TEMPERATURE BETWEEN 10 TO 20 DEGREE CELSIUS.RAINFALL = 50 TO 75 cmSOIL = BEST GROWN ON CLAYEY LOAMY SOIL AND BLACK COTTON SOIL OF THE PENINSULAR PLATEAU AND ALLUVIAL SOIL OF NORTHERN PLAINS OF INDIA.AREAS OF PRODUCTION =MADHYA PRADESH, UTTAR PRADESH, MAHARASHTRA.Castor seedIndia is the second largest producer of castor seed.THE PLANT AND ITS SEED ARE NOT FIT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION.THE OIL IS USED IN PAINTS, VARNISHES, PRINTING INKS, LINOLEUM, TRANSPARENT PAPER, SOAPS, PLASTICS.CASTOR OIL IS USED AS AN EXCELLENT LUBRICANT FOR HIGH SPEED ENGINES AND AIRPLANES.

GEOGRAPHICAL REQUIREMENTS OF CASTOR SEEDIS A TROPICAL PLANT AND GROWS AS KHARIF AS WELL AS RABI CROP.TEMPERATURE = BETWEEN 20 TO 23 DEGREE CELSIUS. FROST IS HARMFUL .RAINFALL = TOLERANT TO DROUGHT / 50 TO 75 cm OF RAINFALL IS ADEQUATE.SOIL = GROWS BEST IN DEEP LOAMY SOIL AND LIGHT ALLUVIAL SOIL.AREAS OF PRODUCTION =ANDHRA PRADESH, GUJRAT, RAJASTHAN, ORISSA.

COTTON SEEDSIS PRODUCED WHERE COTTON IS CULTIVATED AS IT IS A BY-PRODUCT OBTAINED AFTER GINNING OF COTTON.GINNING SEPARATES THE FIBRE FROM THE SEED AND THESE SEEDS ARE COMPRESSED TO EXTRACT OIL.COTTON SEED OIL IS USED IN MANUFACTURE OF HYDROGENATED OIL.COTTON SEEDS OILCAKES ARE USED AS CATTLE FEED.IS USED FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PURPOSES.IS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF EDIBLE OIL USED LARGELY IN THE VANASPATI INDUSTRY.

RUBBERNATURAL RUBBER OBTAINED FROM THE LATEX OF THE TREE HEVEA BRASILINESIS NATIVE OF AMAZON EQUATORIAL FOREST.HAS PROPERTIES OF ELASTICITY, RESISTANCE TO WATER, AND NON-CONDUCTION OF ELECTRICITY.RUBBER GROWS WELL IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE.IN INDIA IT IS GROWN FROM KANYAKUMARI BELT IN THE SOUTH TO THE WINDWARD SIDE OF THE WESTERN GHATS.KERALA= LARGEST PRODUCER OF RUBBER = 90 PERCENT OF PRODUCTION IN INDIA.

GEOGRAPHICAL REQUIREMENTS OF RUBBERTEMPERATURE = CONSTANT HIGH TEMPERATURE OF AROUND 27 DEGREE CELSIUS. THE TREE CANNOT BE GROWN AT HIGH ALTITUDES BECAUSE OF LOW TEMPERATURE.RAINFALL = HEAVY, WELL DISTRIBUTED RAINFALL THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. 200 TO 400 cmSOIL = ALLUVIAL OR LATERITE SOIL.AREAS OF PRODUCTION =KERALA, TAMIL NADU, KARNATAKA, ANDAMN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS.METHODS OF RUBBER CULTIVATIONSOWING = IN TWO WAYS TRANSPLANTATION- SEED GERMINATED IN SPECIAL GERMINATION BEDS. AFTER GERMINATION SEEDS ARE FIRST SOWN IN A SMALL PLOT OF LAND OR NURSERY AND ALLOWED TO GROW INTO TINY PLANTS OR SEEDLINGS.THE HEALTHY, WELL DEVELOPED SEEDLINGS ARE PICKED OUT FROM THE NURSERY BED AND TRANSFERRED TO THE REGULAR FIELD. PROPER DISTANCE IS MAINTAINED BETWEEN THE ROWS PLANTED.7 TO 8 YEARS MATURITY PERIOD OF RUBBER.FARMERS GROW COVER CROPS TO PREVENT SOIL EROSION AND PROVIDE NITROGENOUS COMPONDS TO THE PLANT AND ARE ALSO A SOURCE OF INCOME.Bud grafting methodA BUD OF A HIGH YIELDING IS ATTACHED TO ANOTHER PLANT.WHEN THE SEEDLINGS ARE ABOUT 5 cm HIGH, BUDS YIELDING CLONES ARE GRSFTED ON TO THE SEEDLINGS. THE NEW PLANT COMBINES THE BEST QUALITIES OF BOTH.TAPPING OF RUBBERRUBBER OBTAINED AS LATEX FROM RUBBER TREE.LATEX IS A WHITE MILKY LIQUID OBTAINED BY MAKING A CUT 2 mm DEEP TO LET THE LATEX FLOW OUT BUT NOT TO DAMAGE THE CAMBIAM/ BARK WITH THE LATEX.THIS IS TO BE DONE IN THE MORNING BECAUSE LATEX FLOWS FREELY IN THE MORNINGTHERE ARE FEWER CHANCES OF RAIN IN THE MORNING IN THE AREAS OF PRODUCTION.A TAPPER NEEDS TO BE A HIGHLY SKILLED PERSON.TAPPING IS A LABOUR INTENSIVE WORK AND NEEDS CHEAP AND EFFICIENT LABOUR.PROCESSING OF RUBBERLATEX COLLECTED IS TRANSFERRED TO A PAN AND TAKEN TO THE FACTORY FOR PROCESSING.LATEX IS PUT INTO A TANK OF WATER.DISTILLED LATEX IS STRAINED FROM IMPURITIES DIRT AND BARK BITS.ACID IS ADDED TO THE STRAINED LATEXTHE RUBBER COAGULATES / THICKENS AND RISES TO THE SURFACE IN SLABSSLABS ARE REMOVED AND PRESSED TO SQUEEZE OUT THE REMAINING LIQUIDS AND IMPURITIES.SLABS ARE MOVED TO A SMOKE HOUSE WHERE THEY ARE DRIED FOR SEVERAL DAYSTHE SHEETS ARE PACKED IN BALES AND TAKEN TO THE MARKET FOR SALE.

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