Oil Sands Michael Cibicki. Oil Sands aka “Tar Sands” What are they? Where are they found? How are they extracted?

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<ul><li><p>Oil SandsMichael Cibicki</p></li><li><p>Oil Sands aka Tar SandsWhat are they?</p><p>Where are they found?</p><p>How are they extracted?</p></li><li><p>What are they?A mixture of sand or clay, water and extremely viscous petroleum called bituminOften referred to as unconventional oil</p></li><li><p>Where are they found?Historically used by ancient Egyptians, Sumerians, and Persians for waterproofing usesPrimary reserves found in Canada (Alberta) and Venezuela20% of US oil comes from Canada, 50% oil sandsAlberta has 54,000 sq miles of oil sands containing 95% of Canadian oil reserves and 75% of North American oil reserves</p></li><li><p>Extraction40-60m under the surface, underlain by limestoneShovel and truck strip mining operationAfter excavation, hot water and caustic soda (NaOH) are added and mixture is agitated, creating a liquid with oil rising to the topBitumen is much thicker and must be mixed with lighter petroleum or gas before it can be transported via pipeline to a refinery.2-4 times the amount of green house gases as conventional extraction2 tons of oil sand needed to create 1 barrel of oil90% extraction</p></li><li><p>Extraction</p><p>Steam assisted gravity drainageTwo pipes, one on top for steam, one under to catch oil60% recoveryCyclic Steam generationSteam injected into a well at 300-340 degrees CInjected for a period of weeks to monthsDrained for a period of weeks to months20-25% recovery</p></li><li><p>Referenceshttp://www.energy.alberta.ca/OilSands/793.asp</p><p>http://www.ienearth.org/</p><p>http://hornriver.files.wordpress.com/</p><p>http://scienceblogs.com/framing-science/</p></li></ul>

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