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OCEAN ENGINEERING MECHANICS

Ocean Engineering Mechanics provides an introduction to water wavesand wave-structure interactions for fixed and floating bodies. Theauthor provides a foundation in wave mechanics, including a thoroughdiscussion of linear and nonlinear regular waves, and he presents meth-ods for determining the averaged properties of random waves. Hethen explains applications to engineering situations in coastal zones.This introduction to the coastal engineering aspects of wave mechan-ics includes an introduction to shore protection. The book also coversthe basics of wave-structure interactions for situations involving rigidstructures, compliant structures, and floating bodies in regular and ran-dom seas. The final chapters deal with the various analytical meth-ods available for the engineering analyses of wave-induced forces andmotions of floating and compliant structures in regular and randomseas. An introduction to soil-structure interactions is also included.This book can be used for both introductory and advanced courses inocean engineering mechanics.

Michael E. McCormick is currently the Corbin A. McNeill Professor inthe Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering at theU.S. Naval Academy. He is a Fellow of the Marine Technology Soci-ety, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the Ameri-can Society of Civil Engineers. In 1976, he became the co-editor of thejournal Ocean Engineering and remained so for thirty years. Prior tothat, he was the editor of the Marine Technology Society Journal. Pro-fessor McCormick was the first recipient of the U.S. Naval AcademyAlumni Award for Research Excellence, and he was also awardedthe U.S. Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award and the U.S. NavySuperior Civilian Service Award. He is the author of Ocean Engi-neering Wave Mechanics and Ocean Wave Energy Conversion. Profes-sor McCormick received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from theCatholic University of America and a Ph.D. in civil engineering and aSc.D. in engineering science from Trinity College, Dublin.

www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-85952-3 - Ocean Engineering Mechanics: With ApplicationsMichael E. McCormickFrontmatterMore information

http://www.cambridge.org/9780521859523http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

Ocean Engineering Mechanics

WITH APPLICATIONS

Michael E. McCormickUnited States Naval Academy

www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-85952-3 - Ocean Engineering Mechanics: With ApplicationsMichael E. McCormickFrontmatterMore information

http://www.cambridge.org/9780521859523http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

cambridge university pressCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore,Sao Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo

Cambridge University Press32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA

www.cambridge.orgInformation on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521859523

c Michael E. McCormick 2010

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place without the writtenpermission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2010

Printed in the United States of America

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data

McCormick, Michael E., 1936Ocean engineering mechanics : with applications / Michael E. McCormick.

p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-0-521-85952-3 (hardback)1. Ocean engineering. 2. Hydraulic structures. 3. Hydrodynamics. I. Title.TC1645.M317 2009620.4162dc22 2009014172

ISBN 978-0-521-85952-3 Hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence oraccuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to inthis publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is,or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-85952-3 - Ocean Engineering Mechanics: With ApplicationsMichael E. McCormickFrontmatterMore information

http://www.cambridge.org/9780521859523http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org

I dedicate this book to my dear wife, Mary Ann, and to my

family for their love and support, and to my dear friend and

colleague, Professor Rameswar Bhattacharyya, for his

never-ending support and encouragement, and to the late

Professor Manley St. Denis for all he taught me in the early days

of my career.

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Contents

Preface page xvii

Notation xix

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 Generation of a Sea 11.2 Wind Classification and Sea State 41.3 Ocean Engineering Literature 4

2. Review of Hydromechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.1 Hydrostatics 7Example 2.1: Pressure Hull Analysis 92.2 Conservation of Mass 11Example 2.2: Flow Through a Manifold 132.3 Rotational and Irrotational Flows 14

A. Circulation 15B. The Velocity Potential 16C. The Stream Function 17D. Superposition of Irrotational Flow Patterns 19

Example 2.3: Two-Dimensional Irrotational Flow abouta Circular Cylinder 19

2.4 Conservation of Momentum and Energy 21Example 2.4: Pressure Distribution on a Cylinder in

an Irrotational Flow 22Example 2.5: Incipient Cavitation on a Vertical Circular Cylinder 232.5 Viscous Flows 24Example 2.6: Drag and Vortex Shedding for an OTEC

Cold-Water Pipe 272.6 Hydrodynamics of Submerged Bodies 30Example 2.7: Flow about a Sphere 32Example 2.8: Flow about a Body of Revolution 352.7 Scaling 37Example 2.9: Wave Power Conversion 422.8 Closing Remarks 43

vii

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viii Contents

3. Linear Surface Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443.1 Wind-Wave Generation 453.2 Airys Linear Wave Theory 47Example 3.1: Linearization 493.3 Traveling or Progressive Waves 52Example 3.2: Wavelength Variation with Water Depth 53Example 3.3: Wavelength Solution by Successive Approximations 54Example 3.4: Deep- and Shallow-Water Wavelength Approximations 553.4 Standing Waves 56Example 3.5: Standing Waves at a Seawall 573.5 Water Particle Motions 593.6 The Wave Group 61Example 3.6: Deep-Water Wave Group 633.7 Wave Energy and Power 64Example 3.7: Deep- and Shallow-Water Wave Energy 65Example 3.8: Deep- and Shallow-Water Wave Power 66Example 3.9: Wave Power Conversion 673.8 Shoaling 683.9 Closing Remarks 72

4. Nonlinear Surface Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734.1 Nonlinear Wave Properties 744.2 Stokes Wave Theory 76Example 4.1: Deep- and Shallow-Water Free-Surface Profiles 83Example 4.2: Free-Surface Displacement in Deep Water 854.3 Second-Order Particle Motions 864.4 Water Particle Convection 88Example 4.3: Deep- and Shallow-Water Particle Convection Velocities 89Example 4.4: Wave-Induced Spreading of a Surface Spill 914.5 Long Waves in Shallow Water 92

A. Cnoidal Wave Theory 92B. Application of the Cnoidal Theory 98

Example 4.5: Application of the Cnoidal Theory 100C. The Solitary Wave 101

Example 4.6: Application of the Solitary Theory 1024.6 Breaking Waves 104

A. Stokes Deep-Water Analysis 104B. Miches Formula: Breaking Waves in Waters of

Finite Depth 106Example 4.7: Theoretical, Deep-Water Breaking Wave Profiles 107

C. Breaking Solitary Waves 108Example 4.8: Breaking Height of a Shoaling Solitary Wave 1104.7 Summary 1114.8 Closing Remarks 112

5. Random Seas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1135.1 Introduction 1135.2 Statistical Analysis of Measured Waves 115

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Contents ix

Example 5.1: Cumulative Probability of Occurrence 117Example 5.2: Probability Density and Most-Probable Wave Height 118

A. Average Wave Period and Wave Height 119B. Mean-Square and Root-Mean-Square Wave Heights 120C. Variance of the Wave Heights 120

Example 5.3: Average Wave Period and Statistical Wave Heights 120D. Significant Wave Height and Period 120

Example 5.4: Significant Wave Properties 1215.3 Continuous Probability Distributions 122

A. Average Wave Period and Wave Height 122B. Mean-Square Wave Height 123C. Variance of the Wave Heights 123D. Significant Wave Height 123

5.4 Rayleigh Probability Distribution of Wave Heights 124Example 5.5: Rayleigh Probability Density and Probability Functions 125

A. Average Wave Height 125B. Probability of Exceedance 126C. Significant Wave Height 126D. Extreme Wave Height 127

Exam

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