occupational safety health (osha)

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  • 1.Ergonomics is the study of fitting thework/job to the individual. Ergonomicsmatches the design of tools, controls, andequipment to fit the safety needs of theoperator. Since each of us has differentneeds, ergonomic design of tools,equipment, and workspaces must beadjustable enough to accommodate a variedrange of body types.

2. Derived from two Greek works: Nomoi meaning natural laws Ergon meaning work Ergonomics addresses the relationshipbetween people , their tasks , equipmentand work environment Hence , ergonomists study humancapabilities in relationship to workdemands 3. In 1857,Wojciech Jastrzebowski created theword ergonomics in a narrative he wroteabout the science of nature. World war ll in 1943, an army officerAlphonse Chapanis, learned that if thecontrol layout in the cock pits of plane weresimplified, the pilot make fewer errors. 4. After world war ll, ergonomics not onlyproductivity, but also the safety of theworkers. Research take place in various area The affect of heavy labor on the heart; themaximum loads that should be pulled ,pushed or carried The amount of muscle force that should berequired to perform 5. Worksurface Alternative input Sit or stand?devices Fitting all the pieces Monitor basictogether Telephone basic Accepted postured Source documents Sitting basics Additional accessories Work surface basics Work/rest schedule Keyboard / mousebasic 6. HEIGHT May very depending on task ; e.g surface higher forwriting and typing Should not contact the thighs or kneesWidth Wide enough to accommodate all needed inputdevices, task materials and accessories Enough clearance for legs and any items storedbelow work surface 7. Depth Allow for allow positioning of monitor Allow for postural changes Knees should not contact items / supportstructure under work surface 8. Sit when Doing fine manipulated Need high visual attention Need high degree of stability Precise foot control is needed There is not heavy material handling Task requires fixed postured for extendedperiods 9. Frequently handle heavy objects or whenexperience heavy downward forces Mobility is required Frequently need to make extended reaches Doing a variety of tasks Doing work intermittent work Have low back pain 10. Seating Worksurface Keyboard Monitor Telephone Additional accessories Work/ rest schedule Manual material handling 11. UprightThighsReclinedStandingMove throughout these postures 12. Hips slightly higher than kneesFeet supportedLumber support below beltlineBack angle upright or slightly reclinedArms relaxed or supported 13. Design must be based on job tasks Surfaces should be height adjustable Reading/ writing surface 2 inches higher thanelbow height Keyboard / mouse surface elbow height 14. At or slightly lower than elbow height Neutral wrist postures Relax shoulders Use a light touch 15. Splitkeyboard design Vertical or concave keyboard design Trackball Touchpad Mouse with a supinated angle Always use on a trial basis prior to purchase 16. 25 36 inches from eyesAt or slightly lower than eye levelDirect alignmentAvoid glare or contrast from bright lightsources 17. Ambientlight levels 20-50 foot candles Refresh rate 70-80 Hz Dark characters on a light background Clean monitor at least 1x per week 18. Avoid cradling the hand set between yourshoulder and head Hold the hand set with your dominate hand Use a headset or speaker phone whenappropriate 19. Documentholder -adjacent to monitor -between monitor and monitor Reading / writing slope 20. Large grip pen/pencil-decrease stress on muscles/tendons Wrist rest-Use only while pausing between key strokes Footrest-essential when feet do not touch the floor-help promote postural changes 21. Rotatejob tasks at least 1x per hour Utilize schedule breaks Incorporate stretching into daily routine Change postures frequently Get out of your chair 22. Rotatejob tasks at least 1x per hour Utilize schedule breaks Incorporate stretching into daily routine Change postures frequently Get out of your chair 23. Forceful exertions Repetitive motions Awkward postures Static postures Compression or contact stress Lighting Vibration Noise Cold temperatures 24. Forceful muscular exertions place high loadson the muscles, tendons, joints, and discs,and so are associated with mostmusculoskeletal disorders. Increased muscular exertion results in theincrease of muscles fatigue. With increased muscle fatigue, time neededto recover increases. If recovery time islimited, soft tissue injury is more likely tooccur. 25. RepetitiveMotion Injuries (RMI, also knownas RSI, CTD, CTS) are a class of injuries andillnesses that result from weeks, months, oryears of overuse of human joints. Connective tissues can become sore andsometimes unusable from repeated exposureto micro-trauma. Because of the slow onset of symptoms,people sometimes ignore the condition untilthe symptoms become chronic andpermanent injury occurs. 26. Awkward postures refer to positions of thebody (limbs, joints, back) that deviatesignificantly from the neutral position whilejob tasks are being performed. For example, when a persons arm is hangingstraight down (perpendicular to the ground)with the elbow close to the body, theshoulder is said to be in a neutral position. 27. Whenemployees are performing overhead work such as installing or repairing equipment or grasping objects from a high shelf, their shoulders are far from the neutral position. 28. "Static work" refers to the musculoskeletaleffort required to hold a certainposition, even a comfortable one. For example, when we sit and work atcomputers, keeping our head and torsoupright requires either small or greatamounts of static effort depending upon thebody positions we choose. 29. Contactstress results from occasional,repeated, or continuous contact betweensensitive body tissue and a hard or sharpobject. Contact stress commonly affects the softtissue on the fingers, palms, forearms,thighs, shins and feet. 30. Lightingthat is not appropriate for work task is a major factor in visual discomforts such as eyestrain, burning or itchy eyes, headaches and blurred or double vision. 31. Vibrationrestricts the blood supply to thehands and fingers, which, depending on thevibration level and duration of exposure, cancontribute to an ergonomic injury. Signs and symptoms of vibration-inducedinjury, such as Reynauds phenomenon, startwith occasional numbness or loss of colour inthe fingertips. 32. Noise is an often overlooked part of theworking environment. Office machines, phones, and coworkersconversations can be a distraction. 33. Cold temperatures reduce the naturalelasticity of the body and reduce thesensation of touch (tactile feedback). In order to get the same amount of tactilefeedback, an employee may exert moreforce than is necessary. 34. There are 5 primary phases of 5S:sorting, straightening, systematiccleaning, standardizing, and sustaining.Additionally, there are three other phasessometimes included; safety, security, andsatisfaction. 35. Eliminate all unnecessary tools, parts, andinstructions. Go through all tools, materials, and so forthin the plant and work area. 36. The place for each item should be clearly labeledor demarcated. Items should be arranged in a manner thatpromotes efficient work flow, with equipment usedmost often being the most easily accessible. 37. Cleanthe workspace and all equipment, andkeep it clean, tidy and organized. At the end of each shift, clean the work areaand be sure everything is restored to itsplace. 38. All work stations for a particular job shouldbe identical. All employees doing the same job should beable to work in any station with the sametools that are in the same location in everystation. 39. Maintain focus on this new way and do not allow agradual decline back to the old ways. While thinking about the new way, also be thinkingabout yet better ways.


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