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WHAT IS ATTITUDE? An attitude can be defined as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way toward some object. CHARACTERISTICS OF ATTITUDES They tend to persist unless something is done to change them. Attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favourable to very unfavourable. Attitudes are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings and beliefs. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE Emotional: It involves the persons feelings or affect- positive, neutral or negative. Informational: It consists of the beliefs and information the individual has about the object. Behavioural: It consists of a persons tendencies to behave in a particular way toward an object. BARRIERS TO CHANGING ATTITUDE Escalation of Commitment Insufficient Information HOW TO CHANGE ATTITUDE Providing new information Use of fear Resolving discrepancies Influence of friends and peers The co-opting approach ATTITUDES RELATED TO ORGANISATIONS Job Satisfaction Organisational Commitment JOB SATISFACTION It is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience Job satisfaction is a result of employees perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important.
DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION The work itself Pay
Promotion Opportunities Supervision Coworkers OUTCOMES OF JOB SATISFACTION Satisfaction and Performance Satisfaction and Turnover Satisfaction and Absenteeism WAYS TO ENHANCE SATISFACTION Make job more fun Have fair pay, benefits and promotion opportunities Match people with jobs that fit their interests and skills Design jobs to make them exciting and satisfying ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT This is an attitude reflecting employees loyalty to their organisation. COMPONENTS OF ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT Affective Commitment: Involves the employees emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement with the organisation Continuance commitment: Involves commitment based on the costs that the employee associates with leaving the organisation Normative Commitment: Involves employees feelings of obligation to stay with the organisation because they should; it is the right things to do GUIDELINES TO ENHANCE ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT Commit to people-first values Clarify and communicate your mission Guarantee organisational justice Create a sense of community Support employee development
GROUP DYNAMICS WHAT IS A GROUP? A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting & interdependent, who come together to achieve a particular objective. Huse and Bowditch (1977) defined the group as A Group is any no of people who have a common purpose or objective Interact with one another to accomplish their objective Are aware of one another Perceive themselves as part of the group
THE NATURE OF THE GROUP Own property that is different from that of individual members Synergy GROUP DYNAMICS In 1930s Kurt Lewin popularised the term. It is concerned with the interaction & forces among group members in a social situation. It describes the internal nature of the groups, how they form, their structure and processes. Normative view describes how a group should be organised and conducted. Democratic leadership , member participation and overall cooperation are stressed. Another view demonstrates that it is a set of techniques to make the leader as well as members effective.
WHY THE GROUPS ARE FORMED Propinquity Theory: Individuals associate with one another because of spatial or geographical proximity. Social System Theory: Basis of group formation is activities, interaction and sentiments of people. Exchange Theory: It is based on Reward-Cost outcomes of interaction Balance theory: The persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes toward commonly relevant objects and goals. BALANCE THEORY BASIC REASONS OF GROUP FORMATION Economic Security Relatedness/ Belongingness Esteem & Growth
TYPES OF GROUP Primary Group: Face to face Interaction, family and peer group Informal Group: Formed within the organisation by the members themselves Formal Group: Established by the organisation to accomplish specific tasks
FORMAL GROUPS Committee: Established by the organisation to accomplish specific tasks Command Group: Comprises of a manager and his immediate subordinates Task Force: Consists of employees who work together to complete a particular task or project
STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT Forming: Characterized by Uncertainty, Members are wary of each other, a stage of mutual suspicion Storming: Initially inter group conflict, when conflict is over team spirit starts Norming: Evolving standards of behaviour Performing: The structure at this point is fully functional Adjourning: (temporary group) Wrapping up activities GROUP DEVELOPMENT MODEL: FOR TEMPORARY GROUP WITH DEADLINES The first meeting sets the groups direction. The first phase of group activity is one of inertia. A transition takes place at the end of this first phase, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half of its allotted time. A transition initiates major changes A second phase of inertia follows the transition. The groups lat meeting is characterised by markedly accelerated activity. GROUP BEHAVIOUR MODEL External conditions imposed on the group Group member resources Group Structure Group Processes Group Task Performance and Satisfaction
EXTERNAL CONDITION IMPOSED ON THE GROUP Organisations overall strategy Authority Structure Formal Regulations Resources Performance and reward system Organisations culture Physical work setting GROUP MEMBER RESOURCES Knowledge, Skills and Abilities Personality characteristics: sociability, Initiative, Openness and flexibility GROUP STRUCTURE Formal Leadership Roles Norms Status Size Composition Cohesiveness ROLES Role: A set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit Role Identity: Certain attitudes & behaviour consistent with a role Role Perception: An individuals view of how he is supposed to act in a given situation Role Expectations: How others believe a person should act in a given situation Role Conflict: A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations
NORMS Accepted standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group members Common classes of norms: Performance Norms, Appearance Norms, Social Arrangement Norms, Allocation of Resources Norms CONFORMITY Adjusting ones behaviour to align with the norms of the group. STATUS A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Sources of Status: Ascribed-Achieved, Scalar- Functional, Positional-Personal, Active-Latent Status and Norm: High-status members of groups often are given more freedom to deviate from norm than are other group members. Status and group interaction: The high status people tend to be more assertive. Status inequity results in problematic situation.
SIZE Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks than are larger ones If the group is engaged in problem solving, large groups are consistently better If the goal of the group is fact finding, larger groups are more effective
Social Loafing: The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.
COMPOSITION Group Demography- The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute such as sex, race, educational level in the organisation. Cohort- Individual who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
COHESIVENESS Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group Relationship of cohesiveness and productivity depends on the performance related norms established by the group
COHESIVENESS, PERFORMANCE NORM AND PROUCTIVIY HOW TO INCREASE GROUP COHESIVENESS Make the group smaller Encourage agreement with group goals Increase the time members spend together Increase the status of the group and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in the group Stimulate competition with other group Give reward to the group rather than to individual members Physically isolate the group GROUP PROCESSES Potential group effectiveness + Process gains process losses = Actual Group Effectiveness Synergy: An action of two or more substances that results in an effect that is different from the individual summation of substances Social loafing: The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually
SOCIAL FACILIATATIN EFFECT The tendency to improve or decline performance in response to the process of others.
GROUP TASK Size- performance relationship is moderated by the groups task requirement Large group facilitates pooling of information For coordinating or implementing a decision small group is effective. GROUP TASK More complex the task, the more the group will benefit from discussion among members If the task is simple and routine, no discussion is required If there is a high degree of interdependence among the tasks, more interaction is necessary.
PERFOMANCE AND SATISFACTION Are the outcome of all the variables discussed
MOTIVATING OTHERS DEFINITIONS Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. Motivation is what makes people to do things. In Industrial setting, it meansTo make the subordinate act in a desired manner Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. Drives are usually set up to alleviate needs Incentives will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cu