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Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM T VN

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Con ngi trong th k ny vn khng ngng cho ra i nhng cng trnh nghin cu cc loi thc vt, ng vt trong t nhin nhm tm ra nhng hot cht qu ng dng trong y hc, cha nhng cn bnh nguy him nh ung th, bnh truyn nhim Bn cnh , tip ni nhng thnh cng trong nhng th k trc, chng ta tm ra nhng ngun thc phm giu dinh dng t t nhin nh cc loi bnh to; thc phm chc nng ng thi da vo thin nhin chng ta cng tm ra ngun chit xut ra cht trong ngnh m phm. Spirulina l mt trong nhng loi to c nghin cu nhiu nht v cng em li rt nhiu li ch cho con ngi trong ngnh thc phm, dc phmC nhiu nghin cu chng minh trong spirulina c cha hot cht khng virus HIV- y l cn bnh th k, lm au u cc nh khoa hc. Do c nhiu li ch, Spirulina nhanh chng c a vo cc nghin cu c bn xy dng nhng m hnh nui trng to, ch bin v chit xut nhm phc v cho con ngi. Vit Nam cng xut hin phong tro trng to spirulina. Do vn k thut cn c nghin cu sn xut nhng m to Spirulia cht lng, nng sut cao Nhm chng ti xin gii thiu v k thut trng to Spirulina.

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

1

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Mc lc Trang I/ Gioi thiu to spirulina------------------------------------------------------------------3 II/ c im sinh hc ca to-------------------------------------------------------------3 II.1/ V tr phn loi, tn gi--------------------------------------------------------------3 II.2/ Mi trng sng----------------------------------------------------------------------4 II.3/ Phn b---------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 II.4/ c im dinh dng----------------------------------------------------------------5 II.5/ c im sinh trng v sinh sn--------------------------------------------------6 II.6/ Thnh phn ca to Spirulina-------------------------------------------------------7 III/ Cng ngh nui trng----------------------------------------------------------------12 III.1/ Gioi thiu cc h thng nui to spirulina--------------------------------------12 III.1.1/ Cng ngh nui trng spirulina theo h thng h (O.E.S)-----------------12 III.1.2/ Cng ngh nui trng to spirulina theo h thng kn (C.E.S)------------12 III.2/ H thng nui to h--------------------------------------------------------------13 III.2.1/ Thit k b nui to spirulina--------------------------------------------------13 III.2.1.1/ La chn a im nui to--------------------------------------------------13 III.2.1.2/ Thit k b nui to-----------------------------------------------------------13 III.2.2/ Ngun nc-----------------------------------------------------------------------15 III.2.3/ Chun b ging-------------------------------------------------------------------16 III.2.3.1/ Tiu chun chn ging spirulina--------------------------------------------16 III.2.3.2/ Li ch ca vic xy dng phng th nghim ni nui to nhn ging to-----------------------------------------------------------------------------17 III.2.3.3/ Mt s dng c ha cht phng th nghim--------------------------------17 III.2.4/ Quy trnh nui to Spirulina thu sinh khi-----------------------------------18 III.2.5/ Mt s vn qun l b nui to---------------------------------------------19 III.2.5.1/ Cc yu t vt l---------------------------------------------------------------19 III.2.5.2/ Cc yu t ha hc------------------------------------------------------------19 III.2.5.3/ Cc yu t sinh hc------------------------------------------------------------20 III.3/ Thu hoch to spirulina-----------------------------------------------------------20 IV/ Quy trnh lin hon t nui trng n ch bin, chit xut to Spirulina----22 Kt lun-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 Ti liu tham kho------------------------------------------------------------------------24

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

2

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

I/ Gii thiu to spirulina: + Spirulina l mt loi vi to c dng xon hnh l so, mu xanh lam vi kch thc ch khong 0,25 mm. Chng sng trong mi trng giu bicarbonat (HCO3v kim cao (pH t 8,5 -9,5). Chng c nhng c tnh u vit v gi tr dinh dng cao. + Spirulina xut hin cch y hn 3 t nm. N l vi khun lam c c lch s lu i hn to nhn tht hoc thc vt bc cao ti hn 1 t nm. + Hn 1 ngn nm trc t tin ca nhng ngi Aztect Mexico bit thu hi Spirulina t cc h kim tnh, phi di nh nng mt tri v dng lm thc phm. Hin nay tp tnh ny vn ph bin trong cng ng ngi Kanembous Chad. + Tn gi Spirulina do nh to hc Deurben (ngi c) t nm 1927, da trn hnh thi ca to l dng si xon c (spiralis). + Trn th gii c nhiu cng trnh nghin cu Spiralina phc v cho vic sn xut to lm thc n, dc phm, m phm cho con ngi. T , Spirulina xut hin trong khu phn n trong cc chng trnh chng suy dinh dng tr em. + vit nam: to spirulina c gio s Ripley D.Fox (nh nghin cu v cc ch phm ca n ti Hip hi chng suy dinh dng bng cc sn phm t to(A.C.M.A) ti Php) a vo Vit Nam t nm 1985. Trong nhng nm 1985 1995 c nhng nghin cu thuc lnh vc cng ngh sinh hc cp nh nc nh nghin cu ca GS.TS. Nguyn Hu Thc v cng s (Vin cng ngh sinh hc thuc Vin Khoa Hc v Cng Ngh Vit Nam) vi ti Cng nghip nui trng v s dng to Spirulina. Hay ti cp thnh ph ca Bc s Nguyn Th Kim Hng(TP.HCM) v cng s vi ti Nghin cu sn xut v s dng thc n c to Spirulina trong dinh dng iu trHin nay nc ta c nhiu c s nui trng to Spirulina nh: Vnh Ho (Bnh Thun) t 1979, Chu Ct, Lng sng (Thun Hi), Sui Ngh (ng Nai), c Min (c Lc). II/ c im sinh hc ca to: II.1/ V tr phn loi, tn gi:

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

3

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Ngnh Cyanophyta ( to lam) Lp Hormogoiophyceae B Oscillatoriales H Oscillatoriaseae Chi Spirulina (To xon). Loi: Chi Spirulina c nhiu loi (hn 35 loi) pht hin. Trong c 2 loi c nghin cu u tin v nhiu nht: loi S.geitleri (S.maxima) c ngun gc chu phi, loi S.platensisc c ngun gc Nam M. Ngoi ra cn c S.prpvilca Puru, S.jeejibai CHLB c, S.subsalsa Ukraina, S.laxissima Kenya, S.pacifica Hoa K. + vit nam, ging c nghin cu u tin, lu gi Vin Sinh vt hc, l S.platensis Geitler do CH Php cung cp. II.2/ Mi trng sng: + Spirulina l sinh vt phiu sinh (Plankton) sng t do (free living organism) trong nc kim, giu khong cht. + Cc vi phiu sinh ny l lng su c th ti 50 cm,v trong mi trng nhn to thng nui mc nc 10-30 cm(nui h h), hoc c th trong h y su 1-1,5 m (sc kh) phi m bo to nhn nhn c nh sng. + Tri ni trong nc v nhu cu nh sng l 2 c im rng buc ln nhau, h tr nhau, rt quan trng trong cng ngh nui trng Spirulina. II.3/ Phn b: + Spirulina sng trong mi trng a kim (pH: 8,5-9,5). Trong t nhin, chng sng trong cc h, sui khong p p. + To c phm vi phn b rng: Chu Phi: Tchad, Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nam phi, Ai cp, Tanzania, Zambia. Chu M: Hoa k, Peru, Uruguay, Mexico. Chu : n , Paskistan, Srilanka, Vit nam. Chu u: Nga, Ukraina, Hungarie + Mt loi spirulina c th xut hin nhiu quc gia, c khi nhng ni cch nhau ti na vng tri t nh: loi S.platensis. Nguyn nhn c th l: T nhin: mt s loi chim n to spirulina nh Phoeniconaiasminor ( chu m). Do to bm vo lng v loi chim ny, ri da vo s di c ca chng pht tn ni ging.

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

4

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Con ngi: em to i sn xut nhiu ni trn th gii phc v cho nhu cu ca con ngi. II.4/ c im dinh dng : + Spirulina l vi sinh vt quang dng bt buc. Do , chng khng th sng hon ton khng c nh sng. + Phi m bo cc ch tiu nh sng, nhit , pH, iu kin khuy trn + Mi trng dinh dng ca spirulina gm: + Cc dng cht: mi trng phi m bo cung cp y ngun: cacbon, nit, cc cht khong a lng v vi lng + Dinh dng cacbon: Spirulina ng ha cacbon ch yu dng v c, tt nht l bicacbon (HCO3-), thng qua qu trnh quang hp. Phn ng quang tng hp hidratcacbon (ng) v mt s cht khc: HCO3- + 2H2O (CH2O) + O2 + H2O +OH-. Ngun cacbon nui dng Spirulina khong 1,2 -16,8 g NaHCO3/ lit. + Dinh dng N: Spirulina c kh nng c nh nit, ng ha nit theo phn ng kh nh enzyme nitrogenase xc tc khi c ATP. Kt qu nit c tng hp thnh protein ca chng. Chng khng c kh nng s dng N2 trong khng kh m s dng di cc dng: nitrat (NO3-), NH3 (thng c trong nc thi Biogas), (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2HPO4( c trong phn bn nng nghip), (NH2)2CO. Tuy nhin khi s dng ngun nit khng t nitrat phi khng ch nng v d suy gim sinh khi thm ch c th gy cht to. + Cc cht khong cn cung cp cho mi trng nui to: Photpho v c khong 90 180 mg/L. K+ v Na+ di dng kt hp vi N, P. Mg+: ng vai tr tng t nh P. Ca2+: khng nh r n sinh trng to. Fe cung cp di dng mui FeSO4. Nng Fe2+ rt rng t 0,56 -56 mg/ L mi trng. Cl-: rt a Clo v c, nng dng vi mui NaCl khong 1 1,5 g/L. Sau y l thnh phn dinh dng chnh ca mi trng Zarrouk dng nui Spirulina:

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

5

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Nu mi trng c nhng vi lng khong khc th spirulina cng s hp th. iu ny c gy hi hay c li cho to. S hp thu c hi: Pb, Cd, Hg, As S hp thu c li: Senlen, Fe, germani v c th c I2. Spirulina cng chu tc ng ca cc hormone, gip to tng trng nhanh nh indol acetic acid (AIA), gibberelic acid (GA3) + Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh dinh dng: Cng thc tng qut ca qu trnh quang hp: CO2 + H2O CH2O + O2 Hay 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 spirulina c ti 15 sc t c th tham gia qu trnh quang hp gm: chlorophyl (a) phycocyanin, betacaroten v 11 carotenoids khc, ngoi ra cn phycoerythrin. + Nhit ti ho cho to khong 30 -35oC + pH l kt qu ca cn bng: CO2 H2CO3 H+ + HCO32H+ + CO3-. pH thch hp vi Spirulina khong 8,5 9,5. II.5/ c im sinh trng v sinh sn: * S sinh trng:

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

6

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Spirulina tri qua cc giai on: thch nghi, logarit, ng thng, gim, n nh, lo suy. * S sinh sn c phng thc sinh sn: v tnh(phn chia t mt si to m trng thnh). T mt si to m, hnh thnh nn nhng on Necridia (gm cc t bo chuyn bit cho s sinh sn). Trong cc Necridia hnh thnh cc a lm hai mt v s tch ri to cc hormogonia bi s chia ct ti v tr cc a ny. Trong s pht trin, dn dn phn u gn tiu gim, 2 u hormogonia tr nn trn nhng vch t bo vn c chiu dy khng i. Cc hormogonia pht trin, trng thnh v chu k sinh sn c lp i lp li mt cch ngu nhin, to nn vng i ca to. Trong thi k sinh sn to spirulina nht mu t sc t xanh hn bnh thng. Sau y l vng i to spirulina:

R rng vng i to n gin, tng i ngn. Trong iu kin ti u (nui trong phng th nghim) vng i khong 1 ngy. iu kin t nhin l khong 3 5 ngy. II.6/ Thnh phn ca to Spirulina: + Thnh phn dinh dng ca Spirulina: Khong 9% trng lng kh tng s l cc cht khong; hydrocarbon chim 15%. Khong 6,5% l lipid trong bao gm 2,6% l cc acid bo omega-3 v omega-6 cha bo ha (v y l mt t l rt cao); thm vo t l trung bnh ca betacaroten l 0,17% (rt cao) v vitamine B bao gm 4g B12 trong khu phn 10g Spirulina cn thit cho mt ngi trng thnh trong 1 ngy. + Protein trong spirulina: Phycobiliprotein: phycocyanin v allo phycocyanin. Chng c tc dng tng cng min dch ngi v ng vt; thamgia cc phn ng pht hin khng nguyn c hiu, nh du khng th n dng chun on, pht hin bnh; h tr tr liu ung th Ngoi ra hm lng protein cao nn l thc n giu dinh dng gip: Cung cp cht m

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

7

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Tr suy dinh dng. Do Spirulina xut hin trong khu phn n ca tr em suy dinh dng Chu phi v nhiu quc gia. H tr iu tr suy gan, vim gan, bnh lao. Cung cp hm lng m cao cho cc vn ng vin, ngi lao ng cng cao v ngi bnh. + Glucid trong spirulina: Glucid ca spirulina c cu trc gn ging vi glycogen, nn thch hp vi dinh dng ca ngi v ng vt. Spirulina c cha poly saccharid di dng mui sunfat calci. Phn t ny cha Rhamnose, Glucose,Fructose, Ribose, Galactose, Xylose, Mannose, Glucuronic v Galacturonic. Do spirulina c tc dng: Khng virus HIV 1 v virus herpes. Chng oxy ha kh cc gc oxy ha O2-,OH- Khng thrombin, ngn nga thnh lp cc mu ng trong mao mch. C th c dng lm thuc khng HIV. H tr iu tr phng nga bnh cao huyt p, x cng ng mch v vim thp khp. + Lipid trong soirulina: Cht bo a phn gm cc acid bo cn thit (Vitamin F): acid linoleic 5 10 mg/g, a. linolenic 7 11 mg/g, acid oleic, palmitic vi hm lng ty thuc ging to. C cha acid bo omega: ch yu l: -linolenic (GLA), dihomo- linolenic. GLA l tin cht bin dng tng hp prostaglandin E1. + Cc sc t trong spirulina: +Chlorophyl (a): 0,61 1,15% Carotenoid (betacaroten = pro vitamin A): tin t vita. A trong Spirulina ch yu dng cis trong cu trc. Dng cis c tc dng vitamin A gp 10 ln so vi dng trans nhn to,hoc chit t mt s thc vt nh gc Hm lng Carotenoid theo -caroten trong Spirulina khong 500 ug 1200ug/g hay 800-2000IU/g. Sc t phycocyanin: khong 10 23%. Hm lng cc sc t trong to chu nh hng ca cc yu t: Ging to. iu kin nui cy. Phng php thu hoch. Phng php ch bin v bo qun. Sc t Betacaroten v cc carotenoid gip hot tnh vitamin A hay tin vitamin A. Chng chng oxy ha, tng cng min dch, h tr tr liu ung th, nhim trng. Ngoi ra betacaroten cn c tc dng bo v mt.

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

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Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Sc t Clorophyl kh mi hi vt thng ng tiu ha, kh c gan(sc t phycocyanin ca to cng gip bo v gan v thn) Sc t Zeaxanthin bo v mt ngi cao tui. M nguyn nhn chnh gy m ngi cao tui l do s thoi ha hon th (macula degeneration AMD) + Cc vitamin: Ngoi provitamin A, to cn cha 10 vitamin khc nh: Vitamin B12 : vt chim 0,24 ug/g to kh. Vitamin E : 15 40UG/G, tan trong du c tc dng chng oxy ha. Cc vitamin khc nh : B1(Thiamin), B=2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacine), B5 (Dexpanthenol), B6 (Pyridoxine), B9 (Acid folic), H (Biotin) v innositol xut hin vi lng rt nh. Cc khong vi lng (Fe2+, Mg2+, K+, Se4+, Ge2+) tham gia to hng cu v cu to nn h enzyme ca ngi v ng vt. Selen l cht antioxydant v chng lo ha. Germani c vai tr quan trng trong lu thng kh quyt, tng cng vn chuyn oxy t mu vo m, tc dng tt cho h tim mch. To spirulina c mi tanh nh ca c. Vy xc nh cht gy tanh, cch x l mi tanh c ngha quan trng i vi ngnh ch bin to( trong ngnh thc phm i vi to spirulina). Theo nghin cu thnh phn ha hc ca spirulina ca nhm L Vn Lng, Bi Thanh Trc v CS -1994 ch ra rng nhng cht l cht bay hi, thn du. K hiu CS: Cc bo co Nghin cu cht lng v chit xut hot cht t to Spirulina 1993 1994. Trng i Hc Y Dc TP.HCM, Khoa Dc. c tnh ca cc cht ny l: Ha tan trong ete etylic => bn cht lipid hay hu c thn du. Phn ng vi cc base nh natrihidroxit => cha nhm cha acid. Phn ng vi iod I2 trong acid bng => cha ni ha hc cha no. C 2 phng php kh mi tanh ca spirulina: Phng php chng ct (nu khng nh hng n cht lng to). Thm nhng cht thm che mi tanh ca to nh: hoa nhi, hoa cam, vani. Spirulina cng mang nhiu c im khc bit so vi cc ngun thc n truyn thng khc bi v: - N c cha tt c cc loi protein, vitamin, acid bo khng bo ha v mui khong thit yu cho nhu cu dinh dng. - N c s dng nh loi thc phm n lin cho ngi t nn. - Liu lng cn thit l mt tha c ph trong ngy. Thiu dinh dng thng lin quan ti s thiu calo thng qua vic hp th thc phm nng lng nh ng cc, cht bo v du. -Spirulina c kch thc hin vi v sinh trng trong iu kin nc ha tan mui v c vi kim cao, vi khun gy bnh cho ngi kh pht trin. - Si Spirulina c dng l xo khng cha cellulose trong thnh t bo nn rt d dng cho tiu ha.

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

9

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

- Spirulina cng c tc dng hiu qa chng li bnh anemia v n c cha mt hm lng st ln. Ngoi ra, chng cn git cht nm gy bnh Candida albicans, tng cng h thng min dch,

Hm lng protein v thnh phn, hm lng acid amin ca SpirulinaSTT Acid amin % trn protein Thit yu Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanin Threnine Trypthophane Valine * Bn thit yu Arginine Histidine *Khng thit yu Aspartic acid Alanine Cysttine Glutamic acid Glycine Proline Serine Tyrosine Ornitine Hm lng protein %(trn bt kh) S.platensis (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 * 6,4 10,4 4,4 2,2 5,4 5,4 0,8 7,5 7,8 1,8 0 0 0,7 0 0 0 0 5,0 0 71,9 4,13 5,80 4,00 2,17 3,95 4,17 1,13 6,00 5,98 1,08 6,43 5,82 0,67 8,94 3,46 2,97 4,00 4,60 0 71,0 Spirulina sp (2) 3,00 7,16 2,26 2,36 3,49 4,16 0 3,49 3,03 1,31 8,96 8,22 0,78 12,52 4,66 4,51 5,01 3,92 0 56,7 S.orovilca (3) S.jeejibai (4) 5,0 8,33 5,33 1,66 4,0 3,66 0 5,33 7,0 2,33 7,66 7,66 + 13,33 4,33 3,00 4,0 4,66 + vt 61,3 6,15 9,26 4,93 2,65 4,62 5,3 1,37 7,0 7,43 1,48 9,95 8,28 0,93 13,82 5,28 4,46 5,30 0 0 60,0 S.maxima (5) 5,44 8,95 5,03 3,33 4,61 5,33 1,66 6,72 6,72 1,47 9,68 7,99 1,86 16,59 7,47 1,57 4,91 4,8 0 65,94 S.platensis (6) 3,52 4,78 2,44 2,83 2,83 3,64 0,20 4,42 4,26 2,21 5,59 4,37 1,31 10,29 3,60 2,65 4,10 3,81 0,10 59,5 S.platensis (7) Protein l tng theo WHO/FAO (8) 4,2 4,8 4,2 2,2 2,6 2,8 1,4 4,2

(1)

Toni j.de: 1971, Marseille (France). Flamant vert Association 1987 par F.Busson. (2) Hill Ch., Naoharu F. 1980 (Jan) : The Secrets of spirulina. (3),(4) Becker W: 1982(Ger.): Algoculture (These by Fox R.D). pp 55 + 56 (5) Sosa Texcoco S.A (Mexixo) [nt (3+ 4)] p 51 .

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

10

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM(6)

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

(7)

Nguyn hu thc, Nguyn tin c, ng h.p.hin, ng nh kim (vin vi sinh vt) Tp ch Sinh vt hc, s 2 (3) 8/1980, tr.12 14. L vn lng, L kim anh, Bi thanh trc v CS : Cc bo co Nghin cu cht lng v chit xut hot cht t to Spirulina 1993 -1994. Trng i Hc Y Dc TP.HCM, Khoa Dc.

Phn tch hm lng cht v c trong to Spirulina (tnh theo % trng lng to kh)Mu Calci Natri Photpho Kali St Magie Mangan

*To ca Sosa Texcoco *To ca Fox R.A To ca Labo. Helvinam *To ca Cty nc khong Vnh Ho STT 1 1* 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16* 17* 18* 19* 20* Hot cht

0,13 0,10 0,30 0,007

0,04 0,03 0,23 0,42

0,89 0,76 0,31 ?

1,54 1,33 1,67 0,18

0,06 0,05 0,027 0,39

0,44 0,40 0,37 0,26

0,003 0,002 0,02 0,002

So snh cng thc chun ch phm sinh hc v to spirulina2 5 Protein (g) 1g/kg trng lng c th Vita.A (g) 1.4 1.8mg/1000 200IU/00 Vita.D (g) 60mg/00 Vita.C (mg) 1.2 1.5mg/35 Vita.B (mg) 1.4 -1.7mg/ >23 Vita.B2 (mg) 16 18mg > 9 Vita.B3 (mg) 1.6 - 2.1mg/ > 7.4 Vita.B6 (mg) 0.4mg/2.5 Vita.B9 (g) 3 4 g/1000 Vita.B12 (g) 1g/10 Calcium (mg) 0.2g/20 Magiesium (mg) 18mg/100 St(Fe2+) (mg) 10mg/3 Km( Zn2+)(mg) 0.1-0.15mg/00 Iod(g) 2.5mg/5 ng (Cu2+) Selen + Carbohydrate 1300 Kcal/0.5 Lipid (cht bo) 200 Kcal/1.7 Tng nng lng 2000 2500/1.68 K (cal) Ghi ch Ch phm dinh dng chun: theo Ntrient reference values of International Standardization, trong codex guidelina on nutrition labeling. R.D.A: theo U.S National Research Council 1989 T l p ng RDA (%) tnh cho 10g to Spirulina (kh). 1*: FAO/WHO ch nh lng protein l 5 g. 2*: FAO/WHO khng a ra lng c th, ty nhu cu m ngi thit k dinh dng c th n nh. 18*,19*,20*: Tng nng lng (Kcal) cho mt ngi bnh thng ty dn tc cn nng v trng thi vn ng Ch phm dinh dng chun 3 5 80 0.5 6 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 20 0.1 80 30 1.4 1.5 15 + + To Spirulina (tnh cho 10 g to) 4 6,01-6,02 ~14mg 00 00 0.35mg 0.40mg 1.4mg 0.08mg 0.01mg 32mg 0.10mg 0.04mg 18mg 0.3mg 00 0.12mg + 1.54 0.38 RDA T l p ng (%)

nh hng ca ch n b sung cm to n tng cn nng, chiu cao, vng cnh tay cc th suy dinh dng (trch bo co ca Vin bo v sc khe tr em H Ni, 1994)

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

11

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Cc th Trung bnh (n = 49) Marasmus Kwashiorkor & Marasmus Kwashiorkor (n = 19)

Nhm Nghin cu (n =10) Nhm chng (n = 9) Nghin cu (n = 11) Nghin chng (n = 11) Nghin cu (n =9) Nghin chng (n =10)

0,42 0,17 0,39 0,46 0,67 0,59

Cn nng 0,08 0,06 0,05 0,11 0,14 0,12

0,72 0,65 1,36 1,27 1,17 1,35

Chiu cao 0,25 0,23 0,40 0,34 0,28 0,38

Vng cnh tay 0,44 0,18 0,11 0,50 0,45 0,61 0,60 0,20 0,09 0,15 0,16 0,19

III/ Cng ngh nui trng: III.1/ Gioi thiu cc h thng nui to spirulina: Trn th gii c 2 cng ngh chnh nui to spirulina Cng ngh nui theo h thng h (Opened ecosystem) (O.E.S) Cng ngh nui theo h thng kn (Closed ecosustem) (C.E.S) III.1.1/ Cng ngh nui trng spirulina theo h thng h (O.E.S): Spirulina sng trong mi trng dinh dng ng trong bnh, chu, b c vn ng bng khuy trn theo kiu tnh tin 2 chiu v to hp thu nh sng mt tri pht trin. Kiu nui ny ph thuc vo thi tit cn c gii php khc phc. III.1.2/ Cng ngh nui trng to spirulina theo h thng kn (C.E.S): Spirulina c nui trong cc b ln men vi sinh khi (bioreactor) vn ng bng my khuy trn theo 3 chiu, to hp thu nh sng nhn to hay t nhin. Nhiu kiu CES c thit k nh thng ln men c in hoc kiu ng xon c So snh h thng nui to spirulina h v kn: H thng nui to spirulina h H thng nui to spirulina kn - Chi ph u t thp hn h thng kn - Chi ph u t cao nn t ph bin. nn ph bin nhiu ni trn th gii - Din tch nui trng ln, ch nui -Din tch nui nh, c th nui c c to trong khng gian 2 chiu. to trong khng gian 3 chiu. - Nui trong b dinh dng khng phi Nui trong b ln men vi sinh khi, vn b ln men vi sinh khi (bioreactor). ng bng my khuy trn theo 3 chiu. - To quang hp ch da vo ngun nh - To quang hp da vo ngun nh sng mt tri. sng nhn to v t nhin. - H thng chu nhiu tc ng bi thi - H thng khng chu tc ng bi thi tit kh hu, do vic qun l cc yu tit. Vic qun l cc yu t vt l ch t vt l, ha hc th ng. ng.Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10. 12

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM - t trang thit b hin i hn. Thng s khng c n nh t ng.

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt - Nhiu trang thit b hin i gip qun l ch ng tt c cc yu t vt l(nh sng, nhit ), ha hc (ha cht dng nui trng to), sinh hc (kim sot dit nhng sinh gy hi cho spirulina). Tt c cc thng s(nhit , nh sng, ph) u c n nh t ng. - Cho nng sut cao.

- Cho nng sut thp hn h thng kn III.2/ H thng nui to h: Mt s lu khi chun b nui to: Tm hiu v th trng tiu th. H thng giao thng t ni ni nui to n cc nh my chin bin to phi thun li. Tm c tha thun gia ngi nui to v nh ch bin to. Chun b nguyn vt liu xy dng ao, b nui, h thng khuy nc. Chun b ngun ging to spirulina. Chun b ha cht nui to, trang thit b cho bit cc thng s ca mi trng nui to nh: my o pH, o oxygen, nhit Chun b k thut nui to. III.2.1/ Thit k b nui to spirulina: III.2.1.1/ La chn a im nui to: Ni nui to phi c lng chiu sng thch hp gip to sinh trng bnh thng, nh hng n lng sinh khi thu hoch. Ch ng ngun nc nui to, nc khng b nhim thch hp cho vic nui to Giao thng thun tin. Nu a im xy b c nhiu mi th khng nn dng vt liu xy b l plastic v d b mi n. III.2.1.2/ Thit k b nui to: B nui to hnh ch nht gc c v trn kt hp vi h thng cnh khuy(paddle-wheel). B c th ln (hoc nh) v din tch, th tch c th ln ti 1 ha x 0,3 m3, thm ch n 200ha x 0,3 m3. B nn xy cao 50 55 cm m bo su mc nc t 20 30 cm. B c xy dng bng vt liu xy dng thng thng(ximang, plastic, gch cement hay gch beton cement chu kim). B c xy 1 bc tng ngn ht gia to dng chy lu thng kh khuy xc. C th t 1 hay 2 my khuy cc u lu thng nc.

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

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Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

*H thng khuy xc kh: H thng nui to vi qui m ln c kt hp hp h thnng khuy xc kh nhm thu lng sinh khi nhiu nht. Lu : b cn c khuy lin tc. S xc kh nhm: To s tip xc tt hn ca t bo to vi dinh dng, nh sng, CO2. Gi n nh nhit trong nc gip to pht trin tt. To ra tc nc chy 5,0cm/s. Do , to ra iu kin ti u co s pht trin v to s khng b lng nht l ti cc gc ca b.

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

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Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Ngoi ra,c th xy mi che cho b. Mi che l mt kiu nh knh n gin c th thit k vi 2 mi, nc nhn. Khung mi bng thp, lp tole trong, nha plastic hay bng knh nh sng i qua c.Mi di ng theo hng mt na mi c th ko nm song song pha di phn mi c nh k bn. Mi che c nm v tr chiu sng tt nht, thng hng ng-Ty. Cng dng ca mi che: Chng s xm nhim ca bi t, ct theo gi a vo. Bi khi do nhin liu b t chy. Trnh chim bay vo. III.2.2/ Ngun nc: Nc l dung mi quan trng ha tan cc cht dinh dng nui to spirulina. Nc c th ly t cc ngun: Nc ging khoan: c cha nhiu cht v c c ch, nhng cn phi loi b cc cht c nh ch, arsenic Nc my th: t. Nc bin, sui nc khong: c cha nhiu dng cht. Sau y l thnh phn ha hc ca mi trng Zarrouk v mt s ngun ti nguyn nc.STT Tn ha cht (1) (2) NGUN (3) (4) (5)

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

15

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 NaHCO3 KHPO4 NaNO3 NaCl MgSO4.7H2O FeSO4.7H2O K2SO4 CaCl2.2H2O EDTA Dung dch A5 Dung dch B6 Tng s (g/L) pH p sut thm thu (mOsmol) 16,80 0,50 2,50 1,00 0,2 0,01 1,00 0,04 0,08 1ml/L 1ml/L ~ 22,14 8 -10 620,83 0,21 0,74 (theo KCl) 00 23,36 6,30 ~ 0,0004 + 1,32 00 * ~33 - 39 6,0 6,5 1094,23 00 30,02 (theo KCl) + 45,20 97,08 (Khan) + + + 00 00 ++ ~370 6,8 +

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt0,8 0,99 (CO2 t do) + Na+ = 0,95 K+ = 0,038 Ca2+ = 0,037 Mg2+ = 0,12 Fe = 0,6 Cl- = 0,02 HCO3- = 2,58 PO4- = 0,007 ? 7,5 - 8 ~ 0,011 (CO2 t do) + 0,143 (tng Na+K+) Ca2+ = 0,092 Mg2+ = 0,017 Fe2+ = 0,0004 Cl- = 0,03 HCO3- = 0,227 SO42- = 0,084 ~0,68 7,1

Ghi ch: (1) Mi trng Zarrouk, trong dung dch A5(g/L): H3BO3 = 2,86; MnCl2.4H2O = 1,8; ZnSO4.7H2O = 0,22; MoO3 = 0,01; CuSO4.5H2O = 0,08; Dung dch B6(mg/L): NH4VO3 = 22,9; NiSO4.7H2O = 47,8; Na2WO4 = 17,9; Ti2(SO4)3 = 40,0; Co(NO3)2.6H2O = 4,4. (2) Nc bin: thnh phn nc bin rt phc tp, gn 100 nguyn t ha hc, rt nhiu cht vi lng. (3) Nc t: nc t ng mui c thnh phn phc tp tng t nc bin, cc ion ++ u hin din vi t l ln. (4) Nc sui Vnh Ho nc my TP.H Ni.

III.2.3/ Chun b ging: nc ta thng dng ging to S.latensis ngun gc nhp ngoi, vi 4 hnh dng chnh: thng, xon l xo, un sng v xon np dy, su. Cc ging Spirulina nhp ngoi thng c ngun gc chu phi qua qu trnh phn lp cc phng th nghim sinh hc. Ngun gene spirulina nc ta kh phong ph, c bit spirulina pht trin t nhin h ba b (H Ni). III.2.3.1/ Tiu chun chn ging spirulina: Chn ging theo mc ch ca s dng: lm thc phm (chn ging giu protein, vitamin, khng c hoc cha t mi kh chu khi s dng), lm dc phm(chn ging chit xut c cht mong mun vi liu lng cao), lm m phm( chn ging chit xut ra c nhiu cht dng da, chng lo ha da nh Vitamin Echng oxy ha) Chn ging t hp ph, tch t cc cht c ca mi trng nui cy nh:Pb, arsenic. Giong Spirulina cht lng tt l ging hp ph t nht cc cht c trong cng iu kin th nghim. Chn ging cho nng sut cao, d thu hoch, d thch nghi, sc chng chu tt.

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

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Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Ging spirulina phi c mua nhng c s uy tn. ng thi ni nui trng spirulina cng nn c trang b nhng phng th nghim phc v cho cng tc gi v nhn ging phc v sn xut. nc ta c bo tng ging to Vit Nam l ni cung cp ging v t vn xy dng qui trnh nui to- do gio s Dng c Tin thnh lp t nm 1982. III.2.3.2/ Li ch ca vic xy dng phng th nghim ni nui to: L ni gip phn tch cht lng nc cc b nui lun kim sot tt cc thng s ca mi trng nui to, m bo s lng v cht lng sinh khi khi thu hoch. L ni ct gi v nhn ging to phc v cho sn xut spirulina. C th gip ngi nui to tit kim mt khong chi ln so vi vic mua ging to bn ngoi. m bo ging to lun c phc v sn xut. C th lai to tm ra nhng ging tt nh: thch nghi cao, nng sut cao, cht lng tt. C th lm ni tm ra nhng cng thc mi trng mi nui to t hiu qu. Lu : thit k phng th nghim phi c b nhn ging to. III.2.3.3/ Mt s dng c ha cht phng th nghim: Ni hp p lc (Autoclave) T cy vi sinh vt (Biologycal Safety Cabinet) Knh hin vi quang hc (Microscopic) Dn n nh sng.

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

17

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Mi trng nui cy to trong phng th nghim: thng l mi trng Zarrouk nu nhng phn trn. III.2.4/ Quy trnh nui to Spirulina thu sinh khi: H thng nui h nui spirulina gm: H nui v my trn, mi che iu chnh nh sng v nhim ( c th khng c quy m ln),h thng cp nc.Tin hnh quy trnh nh sau: Chun b: V sinh h cp nc ti mc nh sn( 15 30cm)(ngun thch hp khng ln cc cht c hi cho to) b sung ha cht vo ngun nc (nh lng cc thnh phn ha hc ch yu Na+, K+, HCO3-, NO3-- theo cng thc Zarrouk v thng s pH). Mi trng nui nn n nh trong vi gi trc khi bm ging xung b. Bm ging: Mt t bo spirulina ~ 150 300 mg/L. Ch khuy nn lin tc trong ngy v hn ch nh sng cho ph hp vi sinh khi long. Sinh khi tip tc pht trin th tnh ton pha long dn tip tc nng mc nc nui ln t su cao nht. Cht nui tip tc b sung theo ch dn ca nh lng thng s hng ngy, c th theo chu k: NaHCO3: cch 2 -3 ngy, ty PH tng ln v n nh 10,5. Ngun N: ure cch 1 -2 ngy, cc loi m khc tha hn.Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10. 18

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Nc b sung hng ngy b p lng nc bc hi. Thu hoch sinh khi: Khi sinh khi t > 750 mg/L th thu hoch, v nn sinh khi to ang sinh trng cn li >= 300 mg/L. Thi gian bt u thu hoch thng sau xung ging 7 10 ngy, v qu trnh nui thu hoch lin tc di 3 4 thng th thu ton b, lm v sinh h, nui m mi. III.2.5/ Mt s vn qun l b nui to: III.2.5.1/ Cc yu t vt l: nh sng: nh sng t nhin: thi gian chiu sng, cng chiu sng va phi gip to pht trin tt (lng chiu sng trong ngy bng 30% lng chiu sng vng nhit i l tt nht).Nu thi gian chiu sng di, cng gy gt s lm gim sinh khi to.ng thi nh sng cng lm tht thot oxygen trong ao. Hn na thi gian trong bng ti l thi gian to h hp v c bit tng hp protein. nh sng nhn to (h thng nui spirulina kn): c th iu chnh ng vi nhu cu ca to, gip n pht trin tt. Nhng chi ph tn km. Qun l: i vi h thng h, nu lng chiu sng nhiu qu c th che mt cho ao bng cch trng cy xung quanh ao hoc xy mi che cho ao. i h thng kn: kim tra iu chnh lng chiu sng ph hp bng cch iu chnh h thng n. Nhit N hng n qu trnh sinh trng v pht trin ca to. Nhit di 20oC to khng cht nhng pht trin chm. Nhit trn 38oC to s cht. To Spirulina pht trin ti ho 35oC. Ma: nhng ni c lng chiu sng trong ngy cao ,ma s tt cho s pht trin ca to. Nhng n c th lm trn b nui to ra mi trng ngoi. Do ta nn xy thnh b cao. Gi: gip ha tan lng oxygen trong khng kh vo b. Nhng n cng c th mang vt l vo b, c th nh hng khng tt cho to. Do xy mi che cho b cng gip hn ch vt cht l theo gi ri vo b. III.2.5.2/ Cc yu t ha hc: m bo cc lng cht trong nc theo ng cng thc mi trng nui to. Ngoi ra cn b sung cc ion sau y vo b nui: Anions Cations Carbonate: 2800 mg/L Sodium: 4380 mg/L Bicarbonate: 720 mg/L Potassium: 642 mg/L Nitrate: 614 mg/L Calcium: 10 mg/L Phosphate: 80 mg/L Magnesium: 10mg/L Sulfate: 350 mg/L Iron: 0,8 mg/L Chloride: 3030 mg/L Thng xuyn o c cc thng s ca mi trng, xut cc bin php qun l thch hp. pH thch hp cho to spirulina: 8,5 -9,5. pH 7, to quang tng hp rt thp.Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10. 19

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Thiu dng cht: c th l thiu m n n thoi bin sc t lam phycocyanin, to b vng, t bo kim pht trin, nng sut thp. T l K,Na phi n nh K/Na Ni > Co > Cr > Cd > Zn. C 1 nghin cu cho rng: nu cadmi (Cd) xp x 10-4 mol/L gy c ch ton b s phn chia ca Spirulina. nh hng ca cc ha cht kh: cht thi nh thuc nhum, thuc tr su, dit c u gy c cho to. III.2.5.3/ Cc yu t sinh hc: C th s xm nhp ca sinh vt c hi cho b nui to l t ngun nc cp. ng vt chn cho (Rotifers): Khi chng ri vo ao.chng s dng to lam lm thc n. Qun l: Dng khuy b vo ban m, to s s dng oxygen h hp dn n ng vt chn cho thiu oxy ri cht. Tuy nhin c lm lm to thiu oxy. C th dng li(vi mt li nh) vt chng. ng vt chn cho l thc n rt tt cho tm c. Khi dng ha cht dit chng phi m bo chng khng nh hng n to v ngi tiu dng. ng vt nguyn sinh: Chng khng c cho ngi, cng khng hi ti to. C l chng cn gip cho to bi v to ra 1 lng CO2 nh. Amoeba: Nhng loi ny khc vi ng vt nguyn sinh ch chng n to. R.R.Kudo m t 74 loi amoeba khc nhau. C mt loi trong s chng gy nguy him cho ngi l Entamoeba histolytica. To tp: Chng c th l nhng loi c c nh hng n sc khe ngi tiu dng. Do mi trng pht trin Spirulina l kim tnh nn c th lm gim s pht trin ca s loi to tp. Vi khun: Chng c th gy tc hi cho con ngi khi s dng to. Tuy nhin pH ca hu ht cc loi vi khun gy bnh cng nh nm mc nm men khong 6,0 8,0 nn chng b tiu dit trong b nui to Spirulina. III.3/ Thu hoch to spirulina: Ngoi cch xc nh thi im thu hoch nh trnh by trn, ta cng c th s dng a Secchi.(thit b n gin o trong ca nc trong b). Khi su nhn thy c a Secchi t t 1,5 2 cm th l thi im thu hoch. Thu hoch cho n su nhn thy c a Secchi l 4 cm th dng v b sung ha cht vo b, tip tc va nui va thu hoch. i vi 1 kg to c thu vt bn phi b sung 1,4 g Mg(tng ng vi MgSO4), 7,6 g P (tng ng 42,72 g

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

20

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

K2HPO4), 5,25 g S (16,48 g K2SO4), 1g Ca (2,77 g CaCl2), 4,48 g NaCl(dng mui bin), 120 g N (260,86 g ure) v cc cht vi lng khc. Ta nn thu hoch to vo sng sm bi nhng l do sau y: Nhit bui sng mt nn vic thu hoch d dng, mt nhc. C nhiu gi phi kh sn phm. Lng protein ca spirulina thu c vo bui sng cao hn nhng thi im khc trong ngy. Nn thu hoch vo nhng ngy nhiu nng m bo to c phi kh. Phng php thu hoch: S dng mng lc Polyester, ng knh mt li 30m. Thit b lc c t nghing cht t c th tin hnh lc c lin tc ng thi ra v vt. Sau chng qua giai on vt nc bng my vt, p hoc nh mng rung cho nc chy bt xung. Bnh to sau c ct ra tng ming, khc nh dao; sau giai on ny nc vn chim 70 -80 %. Trong giai on ny Spirulina do cha nhiu m nn chng d b vi khun tn cng v ln men to ra cc sn phm khng mong mun trong vng vi gi- ty nhit . V vy cc trang tri th cng nh l thng phi bng cch cho dch to vo trong cc hp kim loi ri em phi ngoi nng lm kh to. Ngi ta cn s dng thit b n gin hnh xylanh, mt u c chm cc l nh ng knh 2mm, ri cho to vo trong. Sau p mnh mt u, to s chy ra thnh cc si nh si m tip theo tri nh ln cc khung bng kim loi hoc bng g ri a vo trong cc hp lm kh. Hp lm kh c kch thc cc l vo v ra bng nhau cho php khng kh lu thng c d dng. Ngi ta c th ci tin hiu qu bng cch gia nhit khng kh bn di tm knh hoc bt plastic trc khi cho chng vo hp lm kh.

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

21

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Vn nhim mi trng do nui spirulina: chng c th to ra CO2 thi vo kh quyn, hay lng nc nui m to xong c thi ra mi trng xung quanh gy nhim do tnh kim mnh. Do ngun nc thi t b nui cn phi c pha long hay trung ha trc khi thi ra ngoi. IV/ Quy trnh lin hon t nui trng n ch bin, chit xut to Spirulina:

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

22

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM Kt lun:

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

Thng qua bi bo co, chng ta hiu thm v k thut nui trng to spirulina. T ta c th vn dng kin thc vo sn xut nhm em li hiu qu cao. Hin nay nc ta to ang c trng i tr, Nh nc nn hu tr ngnh cng ngh sinh hc nhm tm ra nhng ging to lai phm cht tt nng sut cao, nhng mi trng nui cy hiu qu cao, u t nghin cu, trin khai nhng m hnh nui t hiu qu thch hp c nh sn xut ln v ngi nng dn. Chng ta cn pht trin ton din c v nui trng ln ch bin chit xut to nhm khai thc c hiu qu ngun nguyn liu qu ny .

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

23

Trng H Nng Lm TP.HCM Ti liu tham kho: L Vn Lng.1999. Spirulina. Nh xut bn Y Hc. Cc trang web: http://vietsciences.free.fr http://www.thanhnien.com.vn http://www.baokhanhhoa.com.vn http://www.dep.com.vn

Mn: Thy Sinh Thc Vt

http://www.nea.gov.vn/thongtinmt/noidung/vnn1_25_4_04.htm http://www.saharavn.com/index.php? page=5&sub=943&script=tintuc&view=12009&type=news.

Lp: DH06NT. Nhm 10.

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