Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 25

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Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 25. Identify the Types of Emission Particles Balancing Nuclear Equations Predict Nuclear Decay Products Calculate the Half-Life of a Given Process. Nuclear Decay. Some isotopes are stable, some are not Band/Zone of stability allows for predictions. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear ChemistryChapter 25Identify the Types of Emission ParticlesBalancing Nuclear EquationsPredict Nuclear Decay ProductsCalculate the Half-Life of a Given ProcessNuclear DecaySome isotopes are stable, some are notBand/Zone of stability allows for predictions

Types of Nuclear ParticlesAlpha Particles

Beta Particles

PositronTypes of Particles, cont.Gamma Rays


ProtonTypes of Nuclear DecayPositron production713N 613C + 10e

Electron capture3373As + -10e 3273Ge

Alpha Decaya- particle production84210Po 82206Pb + 24He

Types of Radioactive Decayb-particle production89227 Ac -10 e + _______

Electron Capture: 01 n 11 p + -10 e

Types of Nuclear Decayg-ray productionExcited nucleus ground state nucleus

Spontaneous FissionWhen ____________ nuclei ____________

96252Cf lighter nuclides and neutrons

Nuclear FusionWhen ___________ nuclei ___________

Nuclear Chain Reaction: Self-Sustaining Fission =Process

Subcritical less than one neutron per event

Critical one neutron per event to produce another neutron

Supercritical more than one neutron from each event causes more events to occur

Balancing Nuclear Reactions36 Li + 12H 24He + ______88Sr + 84Kr 116Pd + _____40Ca + 248Cm 147Sm + _____40Ca + 238U 70Zn + 4 10n + _____Balancing Nuclear ReactionsThe alpha decay of iridium-174The beta decay of platinum-199Positron emission from sulfur-31Krypton-76 undergoes electron captureThe Equation of a Straight Liney = mx + b

ln[N] = -kt + ln[N0]

ln(N/N0) = -kt

t1/2 = 0.693/k

Rate = kN

Example 1Technetium 99 is used to form pictures of internal organs in the body and is often used to assess heart damage. The rate constant for 4399Tc is known to be 1.16 x 10-1 hours. What is the half life of this nuclide?Example 2The half-life of molybdenum-99 is 67.0 hours. How much of a 1.000 mg sample of4299 Mo remains after 335 hours?Example 3The half life of Iodine-131 is 8 days. How much of a 100 g sample will remain after 32 days?Applications of Nuclear ChemistryDating how old is an object?

Medical dyes detected because it contrasts to whats already in your body

Weapons Very destructive

Energy Nuclear Power Plants

Applications of Nuclear ChemistryENERGY!!! And lots of it!Example: The formation of the oxygen nucleus8 protons and 8 neutrons*mass defect* when the atom forms, it loses massMass of proton = 1.67262 x 10-27 kgMass of neutron = 1.67493 x 10-27 kgMass of oxygen atom = 2.65535 x 10-26 kgE = mc2 .Mass DefectE = mc2

Energy per mol?

Compare to energy per mole of CH4 = -882 kJ/mole14 million times MORE energy from nuclear reactions than chemical reactionsNuclear Power Plant:Generating Electrical Power


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