nuclear chemistry chapter 21 february 26, 2009. nuclear chemistry in everyday life: 1.nuclear power...

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  • Slide 1
  • NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY Chapter 21 February 26, 2009
  • Slide 2
  • Nuclear Chemistry in Everyday life: 1.Nuclear Power Plants FPL uses nuclear power to generate 18% of Floridas energy needs Locations: Turkey Point, St. Lucie, Crystal River All located near water for reactor cooling purposes.
  • Slide 3
  • TYPES OF ENERGY other than Nuclear Fossil Fuels (oil, coal, natural gas)Fossil Fuels Solar (sunlight)Solar Bioenergy (power from plant material)Bioenergy Electric Power (electric power via coal) 50% in USAElectric Power Hydrogen (clean like electricity made from renewable energy like solar, geothermal, wind)Hydrogen Hydropower (water power) Hoover Dam Geothermal (heat from within Earth)Geothermal Fusion (plasma)Fusion Wind
  • Slide 4
  • Nuclear Energy 20% of all energy generated in America today is nuclear energy O nly method in use today is through nuclear fission, though other methods might one day include nuclear fusion and radioactive decay nuclear fissionnuclear fusion radioactive decay All utility-scale reactors heat water to produce STEAM, which is then converted into mechanical work for the purpose of generating electricity or propulsion.heatmechanical workelectricitypropulsion
  • Slide 5
  • Slide 6
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Slide 7
  • Nuclear power can come from the fission of uranium, plutonium or thorium or the fusion of hydrogen into helium. Today it is almost all uranium. The basic energy fact is that the fission of an atom of uranium produces 10 million times the energy produced by the combustion of an atom of carbon from coal.10 million Natural uranium is almost entirely a mixture of two isotopes, U-235 and U-238. U-235 can fission in a reactor, and U-238 can't to a significant extent. Natural uranium is 99.3 percent U-238 and 0.7 percent U-235.
  • Slide 8
  • Nuclear Fission (the splitting of atoms creates tons of energy)
  • Slide 9
  • The problem with NUCLEAR Power The used reactors are radioactive. If an accident happens, radiation will travel through the air to surrounding areas. Ex: Chernobyl Disaster of 1986
  • Slide 10
  • The 1986 Chernobyl Accident Reactor #4 overheated due to a design flaw!
  • Slide 11
  • Disaster responsible for 4,000-200,000 deaths hydrocephalus -abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles, or cavities, of the brain. Birth defects caused by radiation from nuclear blasts Radiation traveled over 300 square miles
  • Slide 12
  • YES Chernobyl is back in business today with reactors 1, 2 and 3. Reactor 4 remains closed
  • Slide 13
  • GEIGER COUNTER
  • Slide 14
  • This is as close as the authorities would allow us to reach reactor number 4 without protective suits. Even so, we were only allowed there for a maximum of 5 minutes as the Geiger counter in my hand shows that 3 times the amount of radiation from a normal chest x-ray was shooting through us !
  • Slide 15
  • 1986 Chernobyl (Ukraine)
  • Slide 16
  • Film Badge- shows how much radiation exposure a person has been exposed to in a nuclear power plant.
  • Slide 17
  • Nuclear Chemistry in Everyday life: 2.Nuclear Medicine -Radiology -Dyes (radiotracer injected or swallowed) -CT, MRI, Xray, Chemotherapy -Radioactive Iodine (I-131) treatment -Thyroid issues
  • Slide 18
  • Nuclear Medicine imaging are used to: analyze kidney function visualize heart blood flow and function scan lungs for respiratory and blood flow problems identify blockage in the gallbladder evaluate bones for fracture, infection, arthritis and tumors determine the presence or spread of cancer identify bleeding into the bowel locate the presence of infection measure thyroid function to detect an overactive or underactive thyroid investigate abnormalities in the brain
  • Slide 19
  • Nuclear Medicine imaging MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
  • Slide 20
  • Nuclear Chemistry in Everyday life: 3.Smoke Detectors Use Americium-241 to detect smoke. (alpha radiation)
  • Slide 21
  • Nuclear Chemistry in Everyday life: 4.FOOD IRRADIATION Radiated foods have a longer shelf life than normal. Gamma ray radiation preserves foods. Meats, fruits, veggies.
  • Slide 22
  • Food Irradiation Are irradiated foods safe to eat? Yes. Just as pasteurization makes milk safer, irradiation makes meat and poultry safer by reducing the numbers of harmful bacteria and parasites. Irradiation is an important food safety tool in fighting foodborne illness.
  • Slide 23
  • Food Irradiation Are irradiated foods safe to eat? Until recently, only irradiated dried spices and enzymes were marketed in the United States. In January 1992, irradiated Florida strawberries were sold at a North Miami supermarket. Sales of irradiated products are ongoing in several grocery stores. Poultry irradiation began commercially in 1993. Irradiation of food has been approved in 37 countries for more than 40 products. The largest marketers of irradiated food are Belgium and France (each country irradiates about 10,000 tons of food per year), and the Netherlands (which irradiates bout 20,000 tons per year).
  • Slide 24
  • Food Irradiation Are irradiated foods safe to eat?
  • Slide 25
  • Food Irradiation Symbol on foods that have been irradiated: the RADURA (comes in any color!)
  • Slide 26
  • Nuclear Chemistry in Everyday life: 5.Pest-Control Irradiation Radiation vs Pesticides Gamma radiation sterilizes pests. No reproduction will occur. DDT-Bald Eagle- 1970s
  • Slide 27
  • Nuclear Chemistry in Everyday life: 6.Archeological Dating How old are dinosaur bones?? How long as a body been decomposing? Using Carbon-14 dating these questions can be answered.
  • Slide 28
  • Archeological Dating -Carbon-14 (in living tissue) is compared to the ratio of Carbon-12 (in decomposing tissue) by mass gives an estimated time of death. -Half-life (t 1/2 ) = when half of a substance has decomposed or radiated. -Carbon-14 has a t 1/2 = 4,700 years
  • Slide 29
  • Nuclear Weapons 7. USA is the only country to use nuclear weapons on another country. EIGHT countries have nuclear weapons Britain, China, France, India, Pakistan, Russia, United States, North Korea (Israel??) (Iran is seeking nuclear weapons)
  • Slide 30
  • Nuclear Weapons Hiroshima and Nagasaki USA drops Atomic Bomb on Japan on August 6, 1945
  • Slide 31
  • Hiroshima Today
  • Slide 32
  • Not radioactive because bomb burst in air allowing the ground to be virtually radioactively free. This is unlike Chernobyl which made non-radioactive material (like the soil) in the ground radioactivehence taking longer time to dissipate
  • Slide 33
  • Hiroshima 1945
  • Slide 34
  • Hiroshima Today Place MAZDA is manufactured
  • Slide 35
  • Hiroshima Today
  • Slide 36
  • Alpha, Beta, Gamma
  • Slide 37
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Slide 38
  • EM Spectrum LOWENERGYLOWENERGY HIGHENERGYHIGHENERGY ROYG.BIV redorangeyellowgreenblueindigoviolet
  • Slide 39
  • Sites to View Power Plant Timeline http://www.animatedsoftware.c om/poifu/poifu.swf
  • Slide 40
  • http://www.colorado.edu/physic s/2000/bec/temperature.html