Nuclear Chemistry

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  • 1 Multiple-Choice and Bimodal Questions

    1) What percentage of electricity generated in the U.S. is from commercial nuclear plants?

    A) 1% B) 10% C) 20% D) 50% E) 90%

    2) By what process does thorium-230 decay to radium-226?

    A) gamma emission B) alpha emission C) beta emission D) electron capture E) positron emission

    3) The alpha decay of what isotope of what element produces lead-206?

    A) polonium-210

    4) In balancing the nuclear reaction 238 234 4U E He92 90 2

    , the identity of element E is __________.

    A) Pu B) Np C) U D) Pa E) Th

    5) This reaction is an example of __________. 210 206Po Pb _____84 82

    A) alpha decay B) beta emission C) gamma emission D) positron emission E) electron capture

    6) The missing product from this reaction is __________. 121 121I Te _____53 52

    A) 4He2

    B) 0e1

    C) 1n0

    D) 0e1

    E) 00

    7) This reaction is an example of __________. 41 41Ca K _____20 19

    A) alpha decay B) beta decay C) positron decay D) electron capture E) gamma emission

    8) The missing product in this reaction would be found in which group of the periodic table?

    24 0Na e _____11 1

    A) 1A B) 2A C) 3A D) 8A E) 7A

    9) The missing product in this reaction combines with oxygen to form a compound with the formula

    __________. 42 0K e _____19 1

    A) 2M O B) MO C) 2MO D) 2 3M O E) 3 2M O

    10) Radium undergoes alpha decay. The product of this reaction also undergoes alpha decay. What is the

    product of this second decay reaction?

    A) Po B) Rn C) U D) Th E) Hg

    11) 41Ca decays by electron capture. The product of this reaction undergoes alpha decay. What is the product of

    this second decay reaction?

    A) Ti B) Ca C) Ar D) Cl E) Sc

    12) What is the mass number of a neutron?

    A) 2 B) 1 C) 3 D) 4 E) 0

    13) Nuclei above the belt of stability can lower their neutron-to-proton ratio by __________.

    A) beta emission B) gamma emission C) positron emission D) electron capture

    E) Any of the above processes will lower the neutron-to-proton ratio.

  • 14) What is the largest number of protons that can exist in a nucleus and still be stable?

    A) 206 B) 50 C) 92 D) 83 E) 84

    15) The three radioactive series that occur in nature end with what element?

    A) Bi B) U C) Po D) Pb E) Hg

    16) The largest number of stable nuclei have an __________ number of protons and an __________ number of

    neutrons.

    A) even, even B) odd, odd C) even, odd D) odd, even E) even, equal

    17) In the nuclear transmutation represented by16 13O(p, ) N8 7

    , the emitted particle is __________.

    A) a beta particle. B) an alpha particle. C) a proton. D) a positron. E) a neutron.

    18) Bombardment of uranium-235 with a neutron generates tellurium-135, 3 neutrons, and __________.

    A) zirconium-98. B) krypton-101. C) krypton-103. D) strontium-99. E) zirconium-99.

    19) The reaction shown below is responsible for creating 14C in the atmosphere. What is the bombarding

    particle? 14 14 1N _____ C H7 6 1

    A) alpha particle B) electron C) neutron D) positron E) proton

    20) How many neutrons are emitted when a californium-249 nucleus (Z=98) is bombarded with a carbon-12

    nucleus to produce a 257Rf104

    nucleus ?

    A) one B) three C) two D) four E) zero

    21) How many neutrons are emitted when a californium-249 nucleus (Z=98) is bombarded with a nitrogen-15

    nucleus to produce a 260Db105

    nucleus?

    A) two B) three C) four D) one E) zero

    22) What order process is radioactive decay?

    A) zeroth B) first C) second D) third E) fourth

    23) 131I has a half-life of 8.04 days. Assuming you start with a 1.53 mg sample of 131I, how many mg will

    remain after 13.0 days?

    A) 0.835 B) 0.268 C) 0.422 D) 0.440 E) 0.499

    24) The decay of a radionuclide with a half-life of 54.3 10 years has a rate constant (in 1yr ) equal to ________.

    A) 56.2 10 B) 61.6 10 C) 62.3 10 D) 32.8 10 E) 85.9 10

    25) Due to the nature of the positron, __________ is actually detected in positron emission tomography.

    A) alpha radiation B) beta radiation C) gamma radiation D) x-ray emission E) neutron emission

    26) The mass of a proton is 1.00728 amu and that of a neutron is 1.00867 amu. What is the mass defect (in amu)

    of a 60Co27

    nucleus? (The mass of a cobalt-60 nucleus is 59.9338 amu.)

    A) 27.7830 B) 0.5489 C) 0.5405 D) 0.0662 E) 0.4827

    27) What is the typical percent of uranium-235 in the enriched 2UO pellets used in nuclear reactors?

    A) 0.7 B) 1 C) 3 D) 5 E) 14

  • 28) On average, __________ neutrons are produced by every fission of a uranium-235 nucleus.

    A) 4 B) 3.5 C) 1 D) 2.4 E) 2

    29) What drives the turbine in a nuclear power plant?

    A) the moderator B) steam C) the control rods D) the primary coolant E) 6UF gas

    30) Who is credited with first achieving fission of uranium-235?

    A) Fermi B) Rutherford C) Curie D) Dalton E) Faraday

    31) When ionizing radiation enters the body, what is the predominant free radical produced?

    A) H B) 3H O C) protein D) OH E) 2H O

    32) The nuclear disintegration series of __________ is the source of radon-222 in soil.

    A) 235U B) 238U C) 236Pb D) 235Th E) 14C

    2 Multiple-Choice Questions

    1) All atoms of a given element have the same

    A) mass number. B) number of nucleons. C) atomic mass. D) number of neutrons.

    E) atomic number.

    2) Atoms containing radioactive nuclei are called

    A) radionuclides. B) radioisotopes. C) nucleons. D) nuclides. E) radioisophores.

    3) What happens to the mass number and the atomic number of an element when it undergoes beta decay?

    A) Neither the mass number nor the atomic number change.

    B) The mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2.

    C) The mass number does not change and the atomic number increases by 1.

    D) The mass number does not change and the atomic number decreases by 2.

    E) The mass number increases by 2 and the atomic number increases by 1.

    4) Which one of the following is a correct representation of a beta particle?

    A) 4e2

    B) 10

    C) 0e1

    D) 0e1

    E) 24

    5) Which one of the following processes results in an increase in the atomic number?

    A) gamma emission B) positron emission C) beta emission D) alpha emission E) corrosion

    6) Of the following processes, which one changes the atomic number?

    A) alpha emission B) beta emission C) electron capture D) positron emission

    E) All of these processes change the atomic numbers.

    7) What radioactive element is used to diagnose medical conditions of the heart and arteries?

    A) cobalt-60 B) thallium-201 C) radium-226 D) radon-222 E) Th-234

    8) In what type of radioactive decay does the atomic number of the product increase by one?

    A) alpha B) beta C) gamma D) positron emission E) electron capture

    9) Which type of radioactive decay results in no change in mass number and atomic number for the starting

    nucleus?

    A) alpha B) beta C) positron emission D) electron capture E) gamma

  • 10) Alpha decay produces a new nucleus whose __________ than those respectively of the original nucleus.

    A) atomic number is 2 less & mass number is 2 less B) atomic number is 1 less & mass number is 2 less

    C) atomic number is 2 less & mass number is 4 less D) atomic number is 2 more & mass number is 4 more

    E) atomic number is 2 more & mass number is 2 less

    11) What is the missing product from this reaction? 32 32P S _____15 16

    A) 4He2

    B) 0e1

    C) 00 D) 0e

    1 E) 0p

    1

    12) What is the atomic number of a neutron?

    A) 3 B) 1 C) 2 D) 0 E) 4

    13) What happens to the mass number and the atomic number of an element when it emits gamma radiation?

    A) The mass number remains unchanged while the atomic number decreases by one.

    B) The mass number decreases by four and the atomic number decreases by two.

    C) The mass number increases by four and the atomic number increases by two.

    D) The mass number remains unchanged while the atomic number increases by one.

    E) The mass number and atomic numbers remain unchanged.

    14) Atoms with the same atomic number and different mass numbers

    A) do not exist. B) isomers. C) are isotopes. D) are allotropes E) are resonance structures.

    15) How many radioactive decay series exist in nature?

    A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) 3 E) 10

    16) At approximately what number of protons, or neutrons, does the 1:1 ratio of protons to neutrons start to

    produce unstable nuclei?

    A) 10 B) 20 C) 30 D) 50 E) 80

    17) Carbon-11 decays by __________.

    A) alpha emission B) beta emission C) positron emission D) electron capture E) neutron capture

    18) The formation of krypton from rubidium decay is a result of __________.

    A) alpha emission B) beta emission C) positron emission D) electron capture E) neutron capture

    19) The mode of decay of 32P is __________.

    A) alpha emission B) beta emission C) positron emission D) electron captur