# Novel searches for dark matter and fifth- forces with ... ?· Yevgeny Stadnik, Victor Flambaum Novel…

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Yevgeny Stadnik, Victor Flambaum

Novel searches for dark matter and fifth-

forces with atomic clock spectroscopy,

laser interferometry and pulsar timing

Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Germany

University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

52nd Rencontres de Moriond Gravitation, La Thuile, March 2017

PRL 113, 081601 (2014); PRL 113, 151301 (2014);

PRL 114, 161301 (2015); PRL 115, 201301 (2015);

PRL 117, 271601 (2016);

PRD 89, 043522 (2014); PRD 90, 096005 (2014);

EPJC 75, 110 (2015); PRA 93, 063630 (2016);

PRD 93, 115037 (2016); PRA 94, 022111 (2016).

In collaboration with: Dmitry Budker (Helmholtz Institute Mainz)

Motivation Overwhelming astrophysical evidence for existence

of dark matter (~5 times more dark matter than

ordinary matter).

Motivation Overwhelming astrophysical evidence for existence

of dark matter (~5 times more dark matter than

ordinary matter).

What is dark matter and how does it interact with ordinary matter non-gravitationally?

Motivation Traditional scattering-off-nuclei searches for

heavy WIMP dark matter particles () have not yet produced a strong positive result.

Motivation Traditional scattering-off-nuclei searches for

heavy WIMP dark matter particles () have not yet produced a strong positive result.

Problem: Observable is quartic in the interaction

constant e, which is extremely small (e1 >> )!

n(dB/2)3 >> 1 * Coherently oscillating field => cold, i.e., E mc2

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter We propose to search for other well-motivated forms of dark

matter: low-mass spin-0 particles, which form a coherently *

oscillating classical field ( m202/2): (t) = 0 cos(mc2t/)

n(dB/2)3 >> 1 * Coherently oscillating field => cold, i.e., E mc2

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter We propose to search for other well-motivated forms of dark

matter: low-mass spin-0 particles, which form a coherently *

oscillating classical field ( m202/2): (t) = 0 cos(mc2t/) cosmic laser

n(dB/2)3 >> 1 * Coherently oscillating field => cold, i.e., E mc2

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter We propose to search for other well-motivated forms of dark

matter: low-mass spin-0 particles, which form a coherently *

oscillating classical field ( m202/2): (t) = 0 cos(mc2t/), via effects that are linear in the interaction constant .

n(dB/2)3 >> 1

10-22 eV m 0.1 eV 10-8 Hz f 1013 Hz

* Coherently oscillating field => cold, i.e., E mc2

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter We propose to search for other well-motivated forms of dark

matter: low-mass spin-0 particles, which form a coherently *

oscillating classical field ( m202/2): (t) = 0 cos(mc2t/), via effects that are linear in the interaction constant .

n(dB/2)3 >> 1

10-22 eV m 0.1 eV 10-8 Hz f 1013 Hz Inaccessible to traditional scattering-off-nuclei and collider

searches

* Coherently oscillating field => cold, i.e., E mc2

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter We propose to search for other well-motivated forms of dark

matter: low-mass spin-0 particles, which form a coherently *

oscillating classical field ( m202/2): (t) = 0 cos(mc2t/), via effects that are linear in the interaction constant .

n(dB/2)3 >> 1

10-22 eV m 0.1 eV 10-8 Hz f 1013 Hz Inaccessible to traditional scattering-off-nuclei and collider

searches

Ultra-low-mass spin-0 DM with mass m ~ 10-22 eV has been proposed to resolve several small-scale crises of the cold DM model (cusp-core problem and others)

* Coherently oscillating field => cold, i.e., E mc2

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter We propose to search for other well-motivated forms of dark

matter: low-mass spin-0 particles, which form a coherently *

n(dB/2)3 >> 1

10-22 eV m 0.1 eV 10-8 Hz f 1013 Hz Inaccessible to traditional scattering-off-nuclei and collider

searches

Ultra-low-mass spin-0 DM with mass m ~ 10-22 eV has been proposed to resolve several small-scale crises of the cold DM model (cusp-core problem and others)

f ~ 10-8 Hz (m ~ 10-22 eV) T ~ 1 year * Coherently oscillating field => cold, i.e., E mc2

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter We propose to search for other well-motivated forms of dark

matter: low-mass spin-0 particles, which form a coherently *

n(dB/2)3 >> 1

Consideration of linear effects of dark matter in low-energy atomic and astrophysical phenomena has already allowed us

to improve the sensitivity to some interactions of dark matter

by up to 15 orders of magnitude (!)

* Coherently oscillating field => cold, i.e., E mc2

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter We propose to search for other well-motivated forms of dark

matter: low-mass spin-0 particles, which form a coherently *

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter

Dark Matter

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter

Dark Matter

Scalars:

Even-parity

Pseudoscalars

(Axions, ALPs):

Odd-parity

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter

Dark Matter

Scalars:

Even-parity

Pseudoscalars

(Axions, ALPs):

Odd-parity

Oscillating spin-dependent effects

Slow evolution and oscillating variation of

fundamental constants

Low-mass Spin-0 Dark Matter

Dark Matter

Scalars:

Even-parity

Slow evolution and oscillating variation of

fundamental constants

Cosmological Evolution of the

Fundamental Constants Diracs large numbers hypothesis: G 1/t

Cosmological Evolution of the

Fundamental Constants Diracs large numbers hypothesis: G 1/t Values of fundamental constants cannot be predicted,

but must be determined from experiment:

e.g., (q2 = 0) 1/137 locally (in space and time)

Cosmological Evolution of the

Fundamental Constants Diracs large numbers hypothesis: G 1/t Values of fundamental constants cannot be predicted,

but must be determined from experiment:

e.g., (q2 = 0) 1/137 locally (in space and time) Contemporary dark-energy-type models:

Cosmological evolution of fundamental constants driven

by (nearly) massless exotic boson that couples to matter

Cosmological Evolution of the

Fundamental Constants Diracs large numbers hypothesis: G 1/t Values of fundamental constants cannot be predicted,

but must be determined from experiment:

e.g., (q2 = 0) 1/137 locally (in space and time) Contemporary dark-energy-type models:

Cosmological evolution of fundamental constants driven

by (nearly) massless exotic boson that couples to matter

Can a cosmological evolution of the fundamental constants be driven by dark matter?

Dark Matter-Induced Cosmological

Evolution of the Fundamental Constants

Consider an oscillating classical scalar field,

(t) = 0 cos(mt), that interacts with SM fields (e.g., a fermion f) via quadratic couplings in .

[Stadnik, Flambaum, PRL 115, 201301 (2015)]

Dark Matter-Induced Cosmological

Evolution of the Fundamental Constants

Consider an oscillating classical scalar field,

(t) = 0 cos(mt), that interacts with SM fields (e.g., a fermion f) via quadratic couplings in .

[Stadnik, Flambaum, PRL 115, 201301 (2015)]

Dark Matter-Induced Cosmological

Evolution of the Fundamental Constants

Consider an oscillating classical scalar field,

(t) = 0 cos(mt), that interacts with SM fields (e.g., a fermion f) via quadratic couplings in .

[Stadnik, Flambaum, PRL 115, 201301 (2015)]

Dark Matter-Induced Cosmological

Evolution of the Fundamental Constants

Consider an oscillating classical scalar field,

(t) = 0 cos(mt), that interacts with SM fields (e.g., a fermion f) via quadratic couplings in .

[Stadnik, Flambaum, PRL 115, 201301 (2015)]

Dark Matter-Induced Cosmological

Evolution of the Fundamental Constants

Consider an oscillating classical scalar field,

(t) = 0 cos(mt), that interacts with SM fields

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