Notable Inventions and Discoveries[1]

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<ul><li><p>8/6/2019 Notable Inventions and Discoveries[1]</p><p> 1/7</p><p>Notable Inventions and DiscoveriesDate Invention Or Discovery Inventor Or Discoverer Nationality</p><p>1250 Magnifying glass Roger Bacon English</p><p>1450 Printing press Johann Gutenberg German1504 Pocket watch Peter Henlein German1590 Compound microscope Zacharias Janssen Dutch1593 Water thermometer Galileo Italian1608 Telescope Hans Lippershey Dutch1625 Blood transfusion Jean-Baptiste Denys French1629 Steam turbine Giovanni Branca Italian1642 Adding machine Blaise Pascal French1643 Barometer Evangelista Torricelli Italian1650 Air pump Otto von Guericke German1656 Pendulum clock Christiaan Huygens Dutch1661 Methanol Robert Boyle Irish</p><p>1668 Reflecting telescope Isaac Newton English1671 Calculating machine Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz German1698 Steam pump Thomas Savery English1701 Seed drill Jethro Tull English1710 Piano Bartolomeo Cristofori Italian1712 Steam engine Thomas Newcomen British1714 Mercury thermometer Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit German1717 Diving bell Edmund Halley English1725 Stereotyping William Ged Scottish1745 Leyden jar (condenser) E.G. von Kleist German1752 Lightning rod Benjamin Franklin American1758 Achromatic lens John Dollond British</p><p>1759 Marine chronometer John Harrison British1764 Spinning jenny James Hargreaves British1769 Spinning frame R. Arkwright English1769 Steam engine (with separate condenser) James Watt British1769 Automobile Nicholas-Joseph Cugnot French1775 Submarine David Bushnell American1780 Steel pen Samuel Harrison English1780 Bifocal lens Benjamin Franklin American</p><p>1783 Balloon Joseph Michel Montgolfier andJacques tienne Montgolfier</p><p>French</p><p>1784 Threshing machine Andrew Meikle British1785 Power loom Edmund Cartwright British</p><p>1786 Steamboat John Fitch American1788 Flyball governor James Watt British1791 Gas turbine John Barber British1792 Illuminating gas William Murdock Scottish1793 Cotton gin Eli Whitney American1795 Hydraulic press Joseph Bramah English1796 Lithography Aloys Senefelder German1796 Smallpox vaccination Edward Jenner British</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Notable Inventions and Discoveries[1]</p><p> 2/7</p><p>1799 Fourdrinier machine (papermaking) Louis Robert French1800 Jacquard loom Joseph Marie Jacquard French1800 Electric battery Count Alessandro Volta Italian1801 Pattern loom Joseph Marie Jacquard French1804 Screw propeller John Stevens American1804 Solid-fuel rocket William Congreve British</p><p>1804 Steam locomotive Richard Trevithick British1805 Electroplating Luigi Gasparo Brugnatelli Italian</p><p>1810 Food preservation (by sterilization and exclusionof air)</p><p>Franois Appert French</p><p>1810 Printing press Frederick Koenig German1814 Railroad locomotive George Stephenson British1815 Safety lamp Sir Humphry Davy British1816 Bicycle (no pedals) Karl D. Sauerbronn German</p><p>1819 Stethoscope Ren-Thophile-HyacintheLannec</p><p>French</p><p>1820 Hygrometer J.F. Daniell English</p><p>1820 Galvanometer</p><p>Johann Salomo Cristoph</p><p>Schweigger German1821 Electric motor Michael Faraday British1823 Silicon J ns Jakob Berzelius Swedish1823 Electromagnet William Sturgeon British1824 Portland cement Joseph Aspdin British1827 Friction match John Walker British1829 Typewriter1 W.A. Burt American1829 Braille printing Louis Braille French1830 Platform scales Thaddeus Fairbanks American1830 Sewing machine Barthlemy Thimonnier French1831 Phosphorus match Charles Sauria French1831 Reaper Cyrus Hall McCormick American1831 Dynamo Michael Faraday British1834 Electric streetcar Thomas Davenport American1835 Pistol (revolver) Samuel Colt American</p><p>1837 Telegraph Samuel Finley Breese MorseSir Charles WheatstoneAmericanBritish</p><p>1838 Morse code Samuel Finley Breese Morse American</p><p>1839 Photography</p><p>Louis Jacques Mand DaguerreandJoseph Nicphore Niepce WilliamHenry Fox Talbot</p><p>FrenchBritish</p><p>1839 Vulcanized rubber Charles Goodyear American1839 Steam hammer James Nasmyth Scottish</p><p>1839 Bicycle (with pedals) Kirkpatrick MacMillan British1845 Pneumatic tire Robert William Thompson American1846 Rotary printing press Richard March Hoe American1846 Nitroglycerin Ascanio Sobrero Italian1846 Guncotton Christian Friedrich Sch nbein German1846 Ether Crawford Williamson Long American1849 Reinforced concrete F.J. Monier French1849 Safety pin Walter Hunt American</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Notable Inventions and Discoveries[1]</p><p> 3/7</p><p>1849 Water turbine James Bicheno Francis American1850 Mercerized cotton John Mercer British1851 Breech-loading rifle Edward Maynard American</p><p>1851 OpthalmoscopeHermann Ludwig Ferdinand vonHelmholtz German</p><p>1852 Nonrigid airship Henri Giffard French</p><p>1852 Elevator (with brake) Elisha Graves Otis American1852 Gyroscope Jean Bernard Lon Foucault French1855 Hypodermic syringe Alexander Wood Scottish1855 Safety matches J.E. Lundstrom Swedish1856 Bessemer converter (steel) Sir Henry Bessemer British1858 Harvester Charles and William Marsh American</p><p>1859 Spectroscope Gustav Robert Kirchhoff andRobert Wilhelm Bunsen</p><p>German</p><p>1860 Gas engine Jean-Joseph-tienne Lenoir French1861 Web-fed newspaper printing press Richard March Hoe American1861 Electric furnace Wilhelm Siemens British1861 Machine gun Richard Jordan Gatling American</p><p>1861 Kinematoscope Coleman Sellers American1865 Antiseptic surgery Joseph Lister English1866 Paper (from wood pulp, sulfite process) Benjamin Chew Tilghman American1866 Dynamite Alfred Bernhard Nobel Swedish1868 Dry cell Georges Leclanch French</p><p>1868 Typewriter Carlos Glidden andChristopher Latham Sholes American</p><p>1868 Air brake George Westinghouse American1870 Celluloid John Wesley Hyatt and Isaiah Hyatt American1871 Continuous current dynamo Znobe-Thophile Gramme Belgian1874 Quadruplex telegraph Thomas Alva Edison American</p><p>1876 Telephone2</p><p>Alexander Graham BellAntonio Meucci</p><p>AmericanItalian</p><p>1877 Internal-combustion engine (four-cycle) Nikolaus August Otto German1877 Talking machine (phonograph) Thomas Alva Edison American1877 Microphone Emile Berliner American1877 Electric welding Elihu Thomson American1877 Refrigerator car G.F. Swift American1878 Cream separator Carl Gustav de Laval Swedish1878 Cathode ray tube Sir William Crookes British1879 Cash register James J. Ritty American</p><p>1879 Incandescent filament lamp Thomas Alva EdisonSir Joseph Wilson Swan</p><p>AmericanBritish</p><p>1879 Automobile engine (two-cycle) Karl Benz German1879 Arc lamp Charles Francis Bush American1880 Linotype Ottmar Mergenthaler American1884 Steam turbine C.A. Parsons English</p><p>1884 Rayon (nitrocellulose)Comte Hilaire Bernigaud deChardonnet French</p><p>1884 Multiple-wheel steam turbine Sir Charles Algernon Parsons British</p><p>1884Nipkow disk (mechanical television scanningdevice) Paul Gottlieb Nipkow German</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Notable Inventions and Discoveries[1]</p><p> 4/7</p><p>1884 Fountain pen Lewis Edson Waterman American</p><p>1885 Graphophone (dictating machine)Chichester A. Bell andCharles Sumner Tainter American</p><p>1885 AC transformer William Stanley American1887 Air-inflated rubber tire J.B. Dunlop Scottish1887 Gramophone (disk records) Emile Berliner American</p><p>1887 Gas mantle Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach Austrian1887 Mimeograph Albert Blake Dick American1887 Monotype Tolbert Lanston American1888 Adding machine (recording) William Seward Burroughs American1888 Kodak camera George Eastman American1889 Steam turbine C.G. de Laval Swedish1890 Rayon (cuprammonium) Louis Henri Despeissis French1891 Glider Otto Lilienthal German</p><p>1891 Motion picture camera (kinetograph) Thomas Alva EdisonWilliam K. L. Dickson</p><p>AmericanBritish</p><p>1891 Motion picture viewer (kinetoscope)Thomas Alva EdisonWilliam K. L. Dickson</p><p>AmericanBritish</p><p>1891 Synthetic rubber Sir William Augustus Tilden British1892 AC motor Nikola Tesla American1892 Three-color camera Frederick Eugene Ives American1892 Rayon (viscose) Charles Frederick Cross British1892 Vacuum bottle (Dewar flask) Sir James Dewar British1893 Photoelectric cell Julius Elster Hans F. Geitel German1893 Diesel engine Rudolf Diesel German</p><p>1893 Gasoline automobile Charles Edgar Duryea andJ. Frank Duryea</p><p>American</p><p>1894 Motion picture projectionLouis Jean Lumire and AugusteMarie LumireCharles Francis Jenkins</p><p>French</p><p>American</p><p>1895 X-ray Wilhelm Konrad R ntgen German1895 Rayon (acetate) Charles Frederick Cross British1895 Wireless telegraph Marchese Guglielmo Marconi Italian1896 Experimental airplane Samuel Pierpont Langley American1898 Sensitized photographic paper Leo Hendrik Baekeland American1900 Rigid dirigible airship Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin German</p><p>1902 RadiotelephoneValdemar PoulsenReginald Aubrey Fessenden</p><p>DanishAmerican</p><p>1903 Airplane Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright American1903 Windshield wipers Mary Anderson American1903 Electrocardiograph Willem Einthoven Dutch1905 Diode rectifier tube (radio) Sir John Ambrose Fleming British</p><p>1906 Gyrocompass Hermann Anschtz-K mpfe German1907 Bakelite Leo Hendrik Baekeland American1907 Triode amplifier tube (radio) Lee De Forest American1908 Cellophane Jacques Edwin Brandenberger Swiss1908 Two-color motion picture camera C. Albert Smith British1909 Salvarsan Paul Ehrlich German1910 Hydrogenation of coal Friedrich Bergius German1910 Gyroscopic compass and stabilizer Elmer Ambrose Sperry American</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Notable Inventions and Discoveries[1]</p><p> 5/7</p><p>1911 Air conditioning W.H. Carrier American1911 Vitamins Casimir Funk Polish1911 Cellophane Jacques Edwin Brandenberger Swiss1911 Neon lamp Georges Claude French1912 Mercury-vapor lamp Peter Cooper Hewitt American1913 Ramjet engine Ren Lorin French</p><p>1913 Multigrid electron tube Irving Langmuir American1913 Cracked gasoline William Meriam Burton American1913 Heterodyne radio receiver Reginald Aubrey Fessenden American1915 Automobile self-starter Charles Franklin Kettering American1916 Browning gun (automatic rifle) John Moses Browning American1916 Gas-filled incandescent lamp Irving Langmuir American1916 X-ray tube William David Coolidge American</p><p>1919 Mass spectrograph Sir Francis William AstonArthur Jeffrey Dempster</p><p>BritishAmerican</p><p>1922-26 Sound motion pictures T.W. Case American</p><p>1922 Insulin Sir Frederick Grant Banting Canadian</p><p>1923 Autogiro Juan de la Cierva Spanish1923 Television iconoscope Vladimir Kosma Zworykin American1924 Quick-frozen food Clarence Birdseye American1925 Television image dissector tube Philo Taylor Farnsworth American1926 Aerosol can Erik Rotheim Norwegian1926 Liquid-fuel rocket Robert Hutchings Goddard American1928 Penicillin Sir Alexander Fleming British1930 Bathysphere (Charles) William Beebe American1930 Freon (low-boiling fluorine compounds) Thomas Midgley and coworkers American1930 Modern gas-turbine engine Sir Frank Whittle British</p><p>1930 Neoprene (synthetic rubber) Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland andWallace Hume Carothers</p><p>American</p><p>1931 Cyclotron Ernest Orlando Lawrence American1931 Differential analyzer (analogue computer) Vannevar Bush American1932 Phase contrast microscope Frits Zernike Dutch1932 Van de Graaff generator Robert Jemison Van de Graaff American1933 Frequency modulation (FM) Edwin Howard Armstrong American1935 Buna (synthetic rubber) German scientists German1935 Radiolocator (radar) Sir Robert Watson-Watt British</p><p>1935 Cortisone Edward Calvin KendallTadeus ReichsteinAmericanSwiss</p><p>1935 Electron microscope German scientists German1935 Sulfanllamide Gerhard Domagk German1935 Nylon Wallace Hume Carothers American1936 Twin-rotor helicopter3 Heinrich Focke German1937 Snowmobile Armand Bombardier Canadian1938 Ballpoint pen Georg and Ladislao Biro Hungarian1939 DDT Paul Mller Swiss1939 Helicopter4 Igor Sikorsky American1940 Betatron Donald William Kerst American1941 Turbojet aircraft engine Sir Frank Whittle British1942 Guided missile Wernher von Braun German</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Notable Inventions and Discoveries[1]</p><p> 6/7</p><p>1942 Nuclear reactor Enrico Fermi American1942 Xerography Chester Carlson American1944 V-2 (rocket-propelled bomb) German scientists German1945 Atomic bomb U.S. government scientists American1945 Streptomycin Selman A. Waksman American</p><p>1946</p><p>Electronic digital computer John Presper Eckert, Jr., andJohn W. Mauchly American</p><p>1947 Holography Dennis Gabon English1947 Chlormycetin Mildred Rebstock American1947 Polaroid Land camera Edwin Herbert Land American1947 Bathyscaphe Auguste Piccard Swiss1947 Microwave oven Percy L. Spencer American1948 Scintillation counter Hartmut Kallmann German</p><p>1948 Aureomycin Benjamin Minge Duggar andChandra Bose Subba Row American</p><p>1948 TransistorJohn Bardeen, Walter HouserBrattain, and William Shockley American</p><p>1949 Ramjet airplane Ren Leduc French1950 Color television Peter Carl Goldmark American1952 Hydrogen bomb U.S. government scientists American1952 Bubble chamber (nuclear particle detector) Donald Arthur Glaser American1953 Maser Charles Townes American</p><p>1954 Solar battery Bell Telephone Laboratoryscientists American</p><p>1954 Polio vaccine Jonas Salk American1955 Synthetic diamonds General Electric scientists American1955 Carbon dating W.F. Libby American1955 Optical fibers Narinder S. Kapany Indian1956 Hovercraft Christopher Cockerell English1956 First prototype rotary engine Felix Wankel German</p><p>1956 VideotapeCharles GinsbergRay Dolby American</p><p>1957 Sodium-cooled atomic reactor U.S. government scientists American1957 Artificial earth satellite USSR government scientists Soviet1958 Communications satellite U.S. government scientists American</p><p>1959 Integrated circuitJack KilbyRobert Noyce American</p><p>1960 Laser Charles Hard Townes, Arthur L.Schawlow, and Gordon Gould</p><p>American</p><p>1960 Chlorophyll synthesized Robert Burns Woodward American</p><p>1960 Birth-control pill Gregory Pincus, John Rock, andMin-chueh Chang American</p><p>1962 Light-emitting diode (LED) Nick Holonyak, Jr. American1964 Liquid-crystal display George Heilmeier American1965 Kevlar technology Stephanie Kwolek American1966 Artificial heart (left ventricle) Michael Ellis DeBakey American1966 Tunable dye laser Mary Spaeth American</p><p>1967 Human heart transplant Christiaan Neethling BarnardSouthAfrica</p><p>1970 First complete synthesis of a gene Har Gobind Khorana American</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Notable Inventions and Discoveries[1]</p><p> 7/7</p></li></ul>