Northern Ireland

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<ul><li> 1. NorthernIreland<br /></li></ul> <p> 2. 3. NORTHERN IRELAND<br />The population is composedof Protestants and Catholics.<br />900 000 Protestants and 680 000 Catholics.<br /> 4. 5. History<br />England broughtIreland under systematicrule in thesixteenthcentury.<br />English and Scottish Protestant settlers tookthe best land.<br />The Englishtried to destroyIrishlanguage, culture and Catholisism.<br /> 6. 7. Independence<br />Inspired by the American and Frenchrevolutions, theIrishbegantheirlongstruggle to be free.<br />The Irishgotfinallytheirindependence in 1921.<br />Ulster did not getfreedom.<br />Britainhadbigpolitical and economicinterestshere.<br /> 8. 9. Ulster<br />London allowedtheNorthernIrish to governthemselves.<br />NorthernIrelandbecamecontrolled by the Protestants.<br />The Protestants excludedtheCatholics for politicalpower.<br />Theydiscriminatedthemalso in housing and employment.<br /> 10. 11. The Troubles<br />The shipbuildingindustrydeclined in thesixties.<br />NorthernIrelandbecameoneofthepoorest parts in Britain.<br />The Catholicsgotnojobs and theygotangry.<br />In 1968 theywentout in thestreets to demonstrate.<br /> 12. 13. BloodySunday<br />The demonstrationsgotintoviolence.<br />The Catholicsformedthe IRA.<br />The Protestants formedthe Ulster Defence Association and the Ulster Volunteer Force.<br />In January 1972 British troopskilled 13 unarmed demonstrators.<br />The IRA gotmany supporters aftertheBloodySunday.<br /> 14. 15. The provincegot under directrule from London.<br />500 peopledied in 1972 as a resultofviolence.<br />Therewere IRA bombs, troopviolence and sectarian killings.<br /> 16. 17. Catholics<br />The IRA developed to be a smallarmy.<br />The IRA etablished a politicalwing Sinn Fein.<br />The majorityoftheCatholicssupportedthe Social Democratic Party ( SDLP).<br /> 18. 19. Most ofthe Protestants supportedthe Ulster Unionist Party.<br />Ian PaisleyformedtheDemocratic Unionist Party ( DUP).<br />The Unionists werefragmented.<br /> 20. 21. London and Dublin<br />From 1972 to 1985 London tried to foster themiddlegroundamongthepeaceablemajorityofbothcommunities.<br />Buttheeffortsweredestroyed by radicalpoliticiansonboth sides.<br />The government in DublinsupportedtheCatholiccommunity in Ulster.<br />It criticised British policy and practice.<br /> 22. 23. London and Dublin wanted to cooperatepolitically.<br />The British governmentbegan to negotiate an agreementwith Dublin.<br />The Anglo Irishagreementof 1985.<br />This weakened IRAs position.<br /> 24. 25. In 1988 IRAs Gerry Adams and SDLPs John Hume begansecret talks.<br />In August 1994 the IRA announced a cease-fire.<br />The British governmentwantedthatthe IRA decommissioneditsweapons.<br />The IRA refused.<br />In 1996 a big bomb exploded in theDocklands<br /> 26. 27. Tony Blair wantedpeace talks with Sinn Feinifthe IRA abandonedviolence.<br />Sinn Fein and the IRA accepted Tony Blairs challenge.<br />A newcease fire began.<br />Nationalists and Unionists begannegotiations.<br />A peace plan wasclear 10. april 1998.<br /> 28. 29. The agreement:<br />The establishment of a NorthernIrelandassembly.<br />Establish a North South ministerialcouncil.<br />The establishment of a council for the Isles.<br /> 30. 31. Gerry Adams of Sinn Fein and David Trimbleofthe Ulster Unionist Party tried to get an agreement.<br />The IRA refused to decommisionitsweapons.<br />In August 1998 the Real IRA detonated a bomb in Omagh, killing 29 people.<br /> 32. 33. In May 1998 71% ofthepeople in NorthernIrelandsupportedtheagreement.<br /> 34. 35. The twocommunitiesaresegregated.<br />Protestants and Catholics have moved to theirown areas.<br />Education has alwaysbeensegregated.<br />Only 10 % ofchildrenattendintegratedschools.<br /> 36. 37. In 1995 unemploymentstood for 18 % for Catholics and 8 % for Protestants.<br />Unemployment in bothcommunitiesrecruteyoung men for terrorists.<br /> 38. 39. In Julyeachyearthe Orange Order organise parades to celebratetheBattleoftheBoyne.<br />SomeofthemarchesgothroughCatholic areas.<br />The Orangemensee it as a celebrationofcommunityidentity.<br />Catholicssee it as a provocation.<br />In 1998 theOrangemenwereforbidden to marchdowntheGarvaghy Road in Drumcree.<br /> 40. 41. The Catholicpopulation is young, butthe Protestant population is old.<br />The Protestants politicalpower is decreasing.<br /></p>