No bones about it! - bones about it! ... Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) ... Movement due to attached skeletal muscles

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<ul><li><p>1 </p><p>No bones about it! </p><p>Have to reference book OFTEN for pictures &amp; </p><p>names of bones for nearly all homework </p><p> Should immediately be familiar with major </p><p>bone names </p><p> Thigh = femur </p><p> Arm = humerus </p><p> Lower jaw = mandible </p><p> Forearm bones = radius (out) &amp; ulna (in) </p><p> Heel = calcaneous </p><p> Spine = vertebra </p><p> Forehead = frontal </p><p> Hand = metacarpals </p><p> Wrist = carpals </p><p>Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) </p><p>Joints </p><p>Cartilages </p><p>Ligaments </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>Separated into two divisions: Axial skeleton skull and bones that support it like vertebral column, ribs, sternum </p><p>Vertical axis of body </p><p>Appendicular skeleton Limbs and all bones associated with them (hips, fingers, etc) </p><p>Support of the body </p><p>Protection of soft organs </p><p>Movement due to attached skeletal </p><p>muscles </p><p>Storage of minerals and fats </p><p>Ca2+ </p><p>Blood cell formation </p><p>hematopoiesis </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p>The adult skeleton has 206 bones </p><p>Two basic types of bone tissue: </p><p> Compact bone </p><p>Homogeneous </p><p> Spongy bone </p><p>Small needle-like </p><p>pieces of bone </p><p>Many open spaces </p><p>Where red blood cell formation occurs </p><p> Four types of bone shapes </p><p>Long bone Short bone </p><p>Flat bone Irregular bone </p><p>Figure 5.1 </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>Long bones </p><p> Typically longer than wide </p><p> Have a shaft with heads at both ends </p><p> Contain mostly compact bone for strength </p><p>Examples: Femur, humerus </p><p>Short bones </p><p>Generally cube-shape </p><p>Contain mostly spongy bone </p><p>Examples: metacarpals, metatarsals </p><p>Flat bones </p><p>Thin and flattened </p><p>Usually curved </p><p>Thin layers of compact bone around a </p><p>layer of spongy bone </p><p>Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>Irregular bones </p><p> Irregular shape </p><p>Do not fit into other bone classification </p><p>categories </p><p>Example: Vertebrae and hip </p><p>Epiphysis </p><p> Ends of the bone </p><p> Composed mostly of spongy </p><p>bone </p><p> Contains red marrow for red </p><p> blood cell formation </p><p>Diaphysis </p><p> Shaft </p><p> Composed of compact bone </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>Periosteum </p><p> Outside covering of the diaphysis </p><p> Fibrous connective tissue membrane </p><p>Sharpeys fibers Secure periosteum to </p><p>underlying bone </p><p>Arteries Supply bone cells with </p><p>nutrients </p><p>Figure 5.2c </p><p>Articular cartilage </p><p> Covers the external </p><p>surface of the </p><p>epiphyses </p><p> Made of hyaline </p><p>cartilage </p><p> Decreases friction at </p><p>joint surfaces </p><p>Figure 5.2a </p><p>Medullary cavity </p><p> Cavity of the shaft </p><p> Contains yellow </p><p>marrow (mostly fat) </p><p>in adults </p><p> Contains red marrow </p><p>(for blood cell </p><p>formation) in infants </p><p>Figure 5.2a </p></li><li><p>7 </p><p>Bones do not have smooth surfaces </p><p>Surface features of bones </p><p>Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, </p><p>and ligaments </p><p>Passages for nerves and blood vessels </p><p>Categories of bone markings </p><p>Projections and processes grow out from </p><p>the bone surface </p><p>Depressions or cavities indentations </p><p>Foramen or meatus (huge or small) holes </p><p>Osteon (Haversian System) A unit of bone </p><p>Central (Haversian) canal Opening in the center of an </p><p>osteon Carries blood vessels and </p><p>nerves </p><p>Perforating (Volkmans) canal Canal perpendicular to the central </p><p>canal </p><p> Carries blood vessels and nerves </p></li><li><p>8 </p><p>Figure 5.3 </p><p>Detail of Figure 5.3 </p><p>Lacunae </p><p> Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) </p><p> Arranged in concentric rings </p><p>Lamellae </p><p> Rings around the central canal </p><p> Sites of lacunae </p><p>Canaliculi </p><p> Tiny canals </p><p> Radiate from the central canal to lacunae </p><p> Form a transport system </p></li><li><p>9 </p><p>Osteon = mansion with many rooms </p><p>Haversian canals = major hallway </p><p>Volkman canals = smaller hallways </p><p>Lamella = wings of mansion </p><p>lacunae = rooms in each wing Osteocytes = live/grow in rooms </p><p>Canaliculi = doors connecting rooms </p><p>In embryos, the skeleton is primarily </p><p>hyaline cartilage </p><p>During development, much of this </p><p>cartilage is replaced by bone (starting </p><p>at week 9 in utero) </p><p>Cartilage remains in isolated areas </p><p> Bridge of the nose </p><p> Ears </p><p> Parts of ribs </p><p> Joints </p><p>Epiphyseal plates allow for growth </p><p>of long bone during childhood </p><p>New cartilage is continuously formed </p><p>Older cartilage becomes ossified </p></li><li><p>10 </p><p>When blood vessels penetrate </p><p>cartilage membrane, stimulate it to </p><p>become osteoblasts (precursors to </p><p>osteocytes) </p><p>Cartilage is broken down </p><p>Bone replaces cartilage </p><p>osteoblast osteocyte </p><p>collagen </p><p>+ + &amp; </p><p>Calcium ions </p><p>Bones are remodeled and </p><p>lengthened until growth stops </p><p>Bones change shape somewhat </p><p>Bones grow in width </p><p>Figure 5.4a </p></li><li><p>11 </p><p>Figure 5.4b </p><p>Osteocytes </p><p>Mature bone cells </p><p>Osteoblasts </p><p>Bone-forming cells </p><p>Osteoclasts </p><p>Bone-destroying cells </p><p>Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium </p><p>Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts </p></li><li><p>12 </p><p>A break in a bone </p><p>Types of bone fractures Closed (simple) fracture break that </p><p>does not penetrate the skin </p><p> Open (compound) fracture broken bone penetrates through the skin </p><p>Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Realignment of the bone </p><p>Table 5.2 </p><p>Closed fractures Open fracture </p></li><li><p>13 </p></li><li><p>14 </p><p>Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is </p><p>formed </p><p>Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to </p><p>form a callus </p><p>Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a </p><p>bony callus </p><p>Bony callus is remodeled to form a </p><p>permanent patch of new bone </p></li><li><p>15 </p><p>Figure 5.5 </p><p>Forms the longitudinal part of the </p><p>body </p><p>Divided into three parts </p><p>i. Skull </p><p>ii. Vertebral column </p><p>iii. Bony thorax (ribs and sternum) </p><p>Figure 5.6 </p></li><li><p>16 </p><p>Two sets of bones </p><p>Cranium </p><p>Facial bones </p><p>Bones are joined by sutures </p><p>Only the mandible is attached by a </p><p>freely movable joint </p><p>Figure 5.7 </p><p>Figure 5.11 </p></li><li><p>17 </p><p>Figure 5.8 </p><p>Figure 5.9 </p><p>Hollow portions of bones surrounding the </p><p>nasal cavity </p><p> Lined with mucosal membranes (secrete mucous) </p><p> Susceptible to infection since connected to nasal </p><p>passage, therefore exposed to air-borne viruses &amp; </p><p>bacteria </p><p>Figure 5.10 </p></li><li><p>18 </p><p>Functions of paranasal sinuses </p><p> Lighten the skull </p><p> Give resonance and amplification to voice </p><p>Figure 5.10 </p><p>The only bone that does not </p><p>articulate (connect) with </p><p>another bone </p><p>Serves as a moveable base for </p><p>the tongue </p><p> Not easily broken due to </p><p>location; fractured hyoid </p><p>bone is usually indication of </p><p>strangulation of an adult </p><p>Hyoid bone in adolescents </p><p>is primarily cartilage, </p><p>therefore flexible Figure 5.12 </p><p>The fetal skull is large </p><p>compared to the </p><p>infants total body </p><p>length </p><p> Fontanelles (soft spot) </p><p> fibrous membranes </p><p>connecting the cranial </p><p>bones </p><p> Allow the brain </p><p>to grow </p><p> Convert to bone </p><p>within 24 months </p><p>after birth </p><p> Figure 5.13 </p></li><li><p>19 </p><p>Figure 5.13 </p><p>Vertebrae separated by </p><p>intervertebral discs </p><p>The spine has a normal </p><p>curvature </p><p>Each vertebrae is given a </p><p>name according to its </p><p>location </p><p> Cervical (C1-C7) </p><p> Thoracic (ribs) (T1-T12) </p><p> Lumbar (L1-L5) </p><p> Sacral (5 fused) </p><p> Coccyx (4 fused) </p><p> Figure 5.14 </p><p>Figure 5.16 </p></li><li><p>20 </p><p>Figure 5.17ab </p><p>Figure 5.17cd </p><p>Scoliosis </p><p> Lateral curve </p><p>Kyphosis </p><p> Outward (hump) </p><p>Lordosis </p><p> Inward (sway back) </p></li><li><p>21 </p><p> Forms a cage to protect major organs (lungs, </p><p>heart, etc.) </p><p>Figure 5.19a </p><p>Made-up of three parts </p><p> Sternum </p><p> Manubrium (top) </p><p> Body (middle) </p><p> Xiphoid process (bottom) </p><p> Ribs </p><p> True (1-7); connected to </p><p>sternum </p><p> False (8-12); not </p><p>connected to sternum </p><p> Attached (8-10); </p><p>connected to rib 7 </p><p> Floating (11-12); not </p><p>connected </p><p> Thoracic vertebrae </p><p>1 </p><p>3 </p><p>2 </p><p>5 </p><p>4 </p><p>6 </p><p>8 </p><p>7 </p><p>10 </p><p>9 </p><p>11 </p><p>12 </p><p>i. Pectoral girdle </p><p>ii. Limbs (appendages) </p><p>iii. Pelvic girdle </p></li><li><p>22 </p><p>Composed of two bones </p><p> Clavicle collarbone </p><p> Scapula shoulder blade </p><p>These bones allow the upper limb to have </p><p>exceptionally free movement </p><p>Figure 5.20cd </p><p>Two types of limbs: </p><p> Upper (Arms with hands) </p><p> Lower (Legs with feet) </p></li><li><p>23 </p><p>The upper arm is formed </p><p>by a single bone </p><p> Humerus </p><p>Figure 5.21ab </p><p>Figure 5.21c </p><p>The forearm has two bones </p><p>(remember anatomical position!) </p><p>Radius (outer) </p><p>Ulna (inner) </p><p>Figure 5.22 </p><p>The hand </p><p>Carpals wrist </p><p>Metacarpals palm </p><p>Phalanges fingers </p><p>Distal (tips) </p><p>Middle </p><p>Proximal (base) </p></li><li><p>24 </p><p>The thigh has </p><p>one bone </p><p>Femur </p><p>Figure 5.24ab </p><p>The leg has two bones </p><p>Tibia (shin) </p><p>Fibula </p><p>Figure 5.24c </p><p>The foot </p><p>Tarsals ankle </p><p>Must know: </p><p>Talus </p><p>calcaneus </p><p>Metatarsals sole </p><p>Phalanges toes </p><p>Distal (tip) </p><p>Middle </p><p>Proximal (base) </p><p>Figure 5.25 </p></li><li><p>25 </p><p>Bones of the foot are arranged to form </p><p>three strong arches </p><p> Two longitudinal </p><p> One transverse </p><p>Figure 5.26 </p><p>Coxal (hip) bone </p><p>Composed of three pair of fused bones Ilium </p><p> Ischium </p><p> Pubic bone </p><p>The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis </p><p>Protects several organs Reproductive organs </p><p> Urinary bladder </p><p> Part of the large intestine </p><p>Figure 5.23a </p></li><li><p>26 </p><p>Figure 5.23b </p><p>Figure 5.23c </p><p>male male </p><p>female female </p><p>1. Female inlet is larger/more circular </p><p>2. Female pubic arch is &gt; 90 (rounder) </p><p>3. Female ischial spines are shorter </p><p>Articulations (connections) of </p><p>bones </p><p>Functions of joints </p><p>Hold bones together </p><p>Allow for mobility </p><p>Ways joints are classified </p><p>Functionally how they work </p><p>Structurally what they look like </p></li><li><p>27 </p><p>Synarthroses immovable joints </p><p>Ex: skull </p><p>Amphiarthroses slightly moveable </p><p>joints </p><p>Ex: spinal column/vertebrae </p><p>Diarthroses freely moveable </p><p>joints </p><p>Ex: shoulder </p><p>i.Fibrous joints </p><p>Generally immovable -synarthroses </p><p>ii.Cartilaginous joints </p><p>Immovable or slightly moveable - </p><p>synarthroses or amphiarthroses </p><p>iii.Synovial joints </p><p>Freely moveable - Diarthroses </p><p>Bones united by fibrous tissue </p><p>Examples </p><p>Sutures of skull </p><p>Syndesmoses joints held together by ligaments </p><p>Allows more movement than sutures </p><p>Ex: distal end of tibia and fibula </p><p>Figure 5.27ab </p></li><li><p>28 </p><p>Bones connected by cartilage </p><p>Examples </p><p>Pubic symphysis </p><p> Intervertebral joints </p><p>Ribcage </p><p>Figure 5.27de </p><p>Articulating </p><p>bones are </p><p>separated by a </p><p>joint cavity </p><p>Synovial fluid is </p><p>found in the </p><p>joint cavity </p><p> Shoulder </p><p> Knee </p><p>Wrist/ankle </p><p>Figure 5.24fh </p><p>Articular cartilage (hyaline </p><p>cartilage) covers the ends of </p><p>bones </p><p>Joint surfaces are enclosed by a </p><p>fibrous articular capsule </p><p>Have a joint cavity filled with </p><p>synovial fluid </p><p>Ligaments reinforce the joint </p></li><li><p>29 </p><p>Bursae flattened fibrous sacs </p><p>Lined with synovial membranes </p><p>Over 150 in human body </p><p>Filled with synovial fluid </p><p>Not actually part of the joint </p><p>Lubrication </p><p>Cushioning </p><p>Tendon sheath </p><p>Elongated bursa that wraps </p><p>around a tendon </p><p>Figure 5.28 </p><p>Figure 5.29ac </p><p>Six types: </p><p>Joint Type Location </p><p>Plane or gliding Carpals, tarsals </p><p>Hinge Knee, elbow </p><p>Pivot Neck, forearm </p><p>Condyloid or ellipse Wrist, ankle </p><p>Saddle Thumb at carpals </p><p>Ball-and-socket Shoulder, hip </p></li><li><p>30 </p><p>Figure 5.29df </p></li><li><p>31 </p></li><li><p>32 </p><p>Bursitis inflammation of a bursa usually </p><p>caused by a blow or friction </p><p>Tendonitis inflammation of </p><p>tendon sheaths </p><p>Arthritis inflammatory or </p><p>degenerative diseases of joints </p><p>Over 100 different types </p><p>Three major ones will be discussed </p><p>The most widespread crippling disease </p><p>in the United States </p></li><li><p>33 </p><p>a. Osteoarthritis Most common chronic arthritis </p><p>Probably related to normal aging processes </p><p>b. Rheumatoid arthritis An autoimmune disease the immune system attacks the joints </p><p>Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints </p><p>Often leads to deformities </p><p>c. Gouty Arthritis (gout) </p><p> Inflammation of joints is caused by a </p><p>deposition of urate crystals from the </p><p>blood </p><p>Can usually be controlled with diet </p></li><li><p>34 </p><p>Osteoporosis </p><p> Bone-thinning disease afflicting 50% women over 65, </p><p>20% men over 70 </p><p> Bones become fragile so minor accidents have </p><p>devastating bone fractures </p><p> Bones of spine &amp; neck of femur (ball) highly </p><p>vulnerable </p><p> Spine: Dowagers hump (kyphosis) </p><p> Femur: broken hip </p><p> Causes: </p><p> estrogen deficiency after menopause </p><p> Estrogen maintains normal density of bones </p><p> Poor diet deficient in calcium, vitamin D </p><p> Smoking </p><p> Lack of weight-bearing exercises </p><p>Bunion </p><p> Outward growth </p><p>between 1st phalange </p><p>and metatarsal joint </p><p>(where big toe meets </p><p>sole) </p><p> Caused by tight-fitting </p><p>shoes (high heels) or </p><p>injury (ballet dancers) </p><p> Usually genetically </p><p>predisposed (runs in </p><p>families) </p><p> Only surgery can </p><p>correct it </p></li><li><p>35 </p><p> Clubfoot </p><p> Congenital (at birth) foot deformity affecting 1:1000 </p><p> Twice as many boys born with it than girls </p><p> Linked to smoking and Ecstasy drug use while </p><p>pregnant </p><p> Bones, joints, muscles, blood vessels all abnormal </p><p> Corrected either with series of casts forcing foot to </p><p>grow correctly or surgery </p><p>Rickets </p><p> Softening of bones in </p><p>children leading to fractures </p><p>and deformity </p><p> most frequent childhood </p><p>diseases in many developing </p><p>countries </p><p>Cause: vitamin D deficiency </p><p>(lack of sunlight) and/or </p><p>lack of adequate calcium in </p><p>the diet (usually </p><p>malnutrition) </p></li><li><p>36 </p><p>Leukemia </p><p> cancer of blood cells </p><p>originating in bone </p><p>marrow &amp; affects </p><p>lymphatic system </p><p> Results in malformed </p><p>white blood cells that </p><p>are unable to fight </p><p>infection </p><p>Cause: unknown but </p><p>risk factors include </p><p>smoking, chemical or </p><p>radiation exposure </p><p>Treatment: chemotherapy, radiation, </p><p>stem cell (bone marrow) transplant </p><p>Youth </p><p> At birth, the skull bones are incomplete </p><p> Bones are joined by fibrous membranes </p><p>fontanelles </p><p> Fontanelles are completely replaced with </p><p>bone within two years after birth </p><p>Puberty </p><p> Pelvic girdle broadens in girls as result of </p><p>hormones </p><p> Entire skeleton gets stronger/robust in boys </p><p> Shoulder girdle broadens in boys </p></li><li><p>37 </p><p>Aging </p><p>Vertebral cartilage thins leads to </p><p>decrease in overall height (shrinking) </p><p>Menopause in women decreases </p><p>estrogen leads to osteoporosis </p><p>Test Wednesday, October 24 </p></li></ul>