Nineteenth Century American Art!
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DESCRIPTIONNineteenth Century American Art!. Traditions and Innovations. John Singleton Copley!. Was born in Boston in 1738. Copleys mother ran a tobacco shop and his stepfather was an engraver. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Nineteenth Century American Art!
Traditions and Innovations
John Singleton Copley!Was born in Boston in 1738.Copleys mother ran a tobacco shop and his stepfather was an engraver.Copley was inspired by copies of European paintings his stepfather owned and used them as reference in teaching himself to be an artist.By his early twenties, Copley established himself as a masterful portrait painter in Boston.
John Singleton Copley (cont)Copley became famous for his talent in portraying his subjects as lively and in emphasizing their material wealth.Though successful as a portrait artist he believed, fame cannot be durable where pictures are confined to sitting rooms, and regarded only for the resemblance they bear their originals.Copley left the Americas upon the encouragement of artist Benjamin West in 1774, and never returned.Copley died in England in 1815.
Watson and the SharkCompleted in 1778, oil on canvas, (71 x 90 in.)Painting of a sharks attack on Brook Watson in the Havana harbor.Watsons lower right leg is not visible, possibly in reference to the amputation, or to the American revolution.The shark is shown larger than normal because the picture is based on Watsons recollection of the event.The African American sailor is significant because of the time period.
Paul Revere by Copley
Paul Revere, by Copley
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Mrs. Thomas Boylson by Copley
Mrs. Thomas Boylson - Copley
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George Caleb BinghamBorn March 20, 1811 in Virginia.Grew up on the Western frontier in Franklin County, MO.Got his artistic training from being an assistant to Chester Harding.Had established himself as a portrait painter by 1835.Spent time at Dsseldorf Academy in Germany from 1856 to 1859.Mostly painted rural scenes from the frontier.Was a founding member of the Whig Party in MO.Died July 7, 1879.
Mississippi Boatman Completed in 1850, oil on canvas, (24 1/8 x 17 3/16 in.)Shows a boatman sitting on unloaded cargo in front of the Mississippi River.The poor clothes and worn expression on the boatmans face contradict the romantic views of life on the Mississippi.
George InnessBorn in Newburgh, NY, in 1825. Grew up in Newark, NJ.Studied painting with Regis Gignoux, who made very direct observations of landscape.Inness traveled to Italy and France twice in the 1850s.Was inspired by the writings of philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg and Inness work reflected a more spiritual element later in his life.Died August 3, 1894.
The Lackawanna ValleyForeground shows that area, at one time covered, had been cleared Makes reference to the role of railroad in linking the East coast to the rest of the country
Winslow HomerBorn in BostonLittle opportunity for formal education, learned from motherBegan career as artist in 1857 when hired by Harpers WeeklyAssigned to illustrating the Civil War Traveled to France 1866-1867Influenced by Corbets realism and Manets impressionismTraveled to Europe again 1881-1882 Hung out at the North Sea coast in EnglandBased work directly on observation of American Landscape (ala the Hudson River School)Sketchy style was different than his predecessors
A Visit from Old MistressSmall jar (door) is only adornmentThree African-American women, one holding a child, face a white woman in the doorwayOld Mistress clearly remains accustomed to a life of priveligeRemarkable for its naturalistic, unbiased image of African Americans
Mary CassattBorn in PA in 1844Noted impressionist painter Formal education in painting at the PA Academy of Fine Arts (1861-1865)Spent most productive years in EuropeBy 1870s established a home in Paris
The Boating PartyCommon leisure subject of middle class.Shows Cassats interest in Japanese prints through tilted picture frame.Challenged academic conventions, because it exhibited a frozen moment in modern life.
Memorializing the Civil War
Augustus Saint-GaudensWas born in Ireland in 1848, grew up in New York City.Worked as an apprentice, also studied at the National Academy of Design and at Cooper Union in New York City.In1867 he traveled to France and Italy where he studied 15th century sculptures.
The Shaw MemorialOf Commander Robert Gould Shaw and of his Massachusetts fifty-fourth regiment. Shows the departure from Boston in 1863, soon after Shaw and hundreds of his men died.An allegorical figure hovers above the regiment holding an olive branch and poppies.Historically significant for its depiction of African American soldiers.
Shaw Memorial (cont)Saint-Gaudens hired African American models to pose in his studio in order to create completely unique faces for the monument.Saint-Gaudens avoided depicting African Americans with simplistic stereotypical characteristics.Also significant because Shaw is shown with his troops, indicating the role both played in the war.
Henry BaconBorn in Illinois and raised in North Carolina.Started his successful career in the architecture office of McKim, Mead, and White in New York City.Designed the exterior of the Lincoln Memorial.
Daniel Chester FrenchBorn in Exeter, New Hampshire, and raised in Cambridge and Concord, Massachusetts.Received artist training from Abigail May Alcott, sister of Louisa May Alcott who wrote Little Women.Received his first large scale commission when he was twenty-three.
The Lincoln MemorialBacons exterior design for the memorial was modeled after a Greek Doric temple.There are 36 columns for the number of established states at the time of Lincolns assassination.Central chamber houses the monumental portrait of Lincoln, the north wall contains part of Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Address, the South wall contains the Gettysburg Address.Intended to be a site of contemplation.
Sculptors Involved in Stone Mountain Memorial to the ConfederacyStarted by Gutzon Borglum, he intended to create a work similar to Saint-Gaudens.Borglum became delayed by World War I, and entangled with the KKK, the Venable family, the United Daughters of the Confederacy, and the Stone Mountain Confederate Memorial Association, and gave up carving in 1925.Borglums work was blasted away and Augustus Lukeman took over, until the Great Depression.
Sculptors Involved in Stone Mountain Memorial to the Confederacy (cont)In 1963, a team led by Walker Hancock and Roy Faulkner resumed sculpting using Lukemans old plans.Was opened to the public in 1970, the final details were finished in 1972.In 1975 the state of Georgia took action to prevent KKK from making use of the site.
Stone Mountain Memorial to the ConfederacyShows Robert E. Lee with his head in profile, Jefferson Davis, and Thomas Stonewall Jackson.They are carved in varying levels of relief, creating the sensation that they are appearing as a vision.The meaning of the site originally was to commemorate the Confederacy and its leaders, but as the KKK came to associate with Stone Mountain, it was viewed differently. Today it is open to interpretation.
Photography and Documentation
Frederick DouglassBorn into slavery in MD in c.1818Illegally learned to read and write during his seven years (1824-1830) working for Hugh Auld (shipwright) in BaltimoreFailed escape from slavery in 1836Escaped from slavery in 1838 (fled Baltimore for New York)Became involved with abolitionist movementInfluenced by Garrisons LiberatorBecame a lecturer for the MA Anti-Slavery Society in 1841Famous autobiography published in 1845Remained active in abolitionist and feminists movements till his death in 1895
About this PhotographNo formal name, artist unknownDouglass in his 30sDressed in elegant/fashionable clothes Effects of his slave days evidenced by the lines on his faceMost Douglass picture used for his writings and abolitionist causesOne-of-a-kind image (Ambrotype)
AmbrotypePositive photographic process used primarily in the 1850s A collodian negative on glassWet-collodion process: glass plate coated with wet collodion (gunpowder dissolved in ether alcohol) and sensitized with silver nitrate Plate was placed in the camera while still wet and immediately exposedAfter exposure, the plate had to be developed before it driedThis process was valued for its resolution of detail and because exposure times were shorter than other types (like daguerreotypes) The image produced is whitish in tone but when placed over a black opaque surface appears as a positive
About this PhotographTwo union soldiers at a semi-permanent campOne is obviously injured Made by photographer working for BradyBrought home the horrors of the battlefield
Matthew BradyBorn in NY in c.1823Famous for civil war pictures as well as portraits of many important persons (most notably Lincoln)Had many photographers (such as Thomas OSullivan) working under him who he sent to the battlefields with portable darkroomsDue to difficulties with exposure most picture were post-battle or concerned camp life Notable photograph On the Antietam Battlefield(1862) illustrates horrors of warVery little financial compensation from the government post-war; eventually bankruptDied in NYC in 1895
About this PhotographMade while OSullivan worked for the Wheeler Expedition (AZ and NM) Walls of canyon frame pictureViewers eyes drawn to distant rock formation in centerSmall rocks, trees and tents in foreground indicate enormity of canyonProduced from glass plate negativeSW frontier photography presented many hazards: transporting darkrooms over rough terrain, preserving glass plates, sand and heat made pictures difficult to takeMany peoples post-Civil War interest in moving West were spurred by such picturesMany such pictures used to convince congress to make national parks
Thomas OSullivanBorn in NY Known for Civil War and Western Frontier picturesBegan career with Brady in his teensServed briefly in the Union ArmyNotable picture The Harvest of Death(1863) depicts slaughter Union soldiers at GettysburgEstablished own studio post-warHired as photographer for US Geological Exploration West of the 40th Parallel, led by Clarence King, in 1867
About this PicturePortrait of the 3 sons of Margaret and John Westwood Westwood's were a wealthy Baltimore family entrenched in stagecoach manufacturingOldest boy dominates centerEach boy holds piece of nature which offset the serious tone and paletteSmall dog has bird in mouth is indicative of the hunt, a common activity for boys at the timeDrab, simple furnishings draw the viewer to the boys
Joshua Johnson (or Johnston)Born in c.1763 location unknownFirst (known) African American painter to have a long, successful career Cloudy early lifeFreedom from slavery in 1796 (at the latest)Established himself as a portrait painter in the late 1790s in BaltimoreRemained active as an artist until c.1824Self taughtProbably did not travel due to the 1793 Fugitive Slave ActMainly painted affluent, rich, white familiesPainted only two African American subjects during his entire career
About this Piece of PotteryOne of Drakes finest known piecesJar is tall, graceful, has slight curved lipOvoid (egg-shaped)Tapered base, rounded shouldersSmall handles Most similar pots used on plantations for storageMade on potters wheel, fired in a kilnText on jar: I made this jar all of cross If you dont repent you will be lost ~ May 3 1862 LM Dave
David Drake (a.k.a. Dave the Potter)Born c.1800 in SC Masterful potter based out of the Edgefield, SCMost knowledge known about him comes from property and census recordsMost productive from 1834-1864While working as a slave for Lewis Miles pottery shop in EdgefieldNotable for his large body of work, the large volume of his pieces, and his unique inscriptionsSpeculated that Drake illegally learned to read and write from his former owner, Abner LandrumDied sometime after 1870
About this StitcheryAppliqud (decorative design made of one material sewn over another) story quiltDivided into 11 uneven panelsFirst 6 panels depict Old Testament: Genesis First Panel: Adam and EveSecond: Adam, Eve and childThird: SatanFourth: Cain kills AbelFifth: Cain searching for a wifeSixth: Jacobs Ladder
This Old Stitchery (continued)Final 5 panels depict New TestamentSeventh: Baptism of ChristEighth: CrucifixionNinth: Judas with his bountyTenth: Last SupperEleventh: NativityVariety of cloth patterns: calicos, stripes, solids, and othersBlue used for male characters, light calico for females Completed by 1886
Harriet PowersBorn into slavery in 1837 in Clarke County, GA, near AthensOnly two quilts of hers survive, but are thought of as the best by an African American quilter in the 1800s Many accounts of her life come from Jennie Smith, a white woman whom Powers reluctantly sold her Bible Quilt to in 1886 at the Clarke County Cotton Fair for $10
About this PaintingPoetic landscape of ParisView across the Seine from a quayBlurred figure on quaySilhouette of the Trocadro Palace in the backgroundUse of light pink, blue, yellow for setting sun Quick and choppy brush strokesStrokes in the sky create a sensation of upward movementStrokes in the water flow with the river
Henry Ossawa TannerBorn in Pittsburg Formal training from the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts (1879-1885)One of the first African-American to achieve fame in both the US and EuropeGrew up in a heavily Christen-laden householdFather: African Methodist Episcopal MinisterNotable work The Banjo Lesson (1884) challenged stereotypes by showing African Americans taking great interest in educationFirst traveled to Paris in 1891continued training there at Acadmie Julian, exposed to ImpressionismFound new home in Paris, free of most racial obstacles Received support from Booker T. Washington Died in 1937 in Paris
About this Piece of ArchitectureTypical antebellum sugar plantationBuilt for Jacques Telesfore Roman and Celina Pili Draws on classical and Caribbean architecture Colonnade, high ceilings, and large windows protect from heatSymmetrical designAll materials but interior marble and slate on roof are of local originHouse and columns are brick, painted to look marble
About this Piece of ArchitectureDesigned for William Paulding (NYC mayor) in 1838Gothic revival mansionOriginally Knoll, jokingly Pauldings Folly Lyndenhurst George Merritt, NY merchantLyndhurst Jay Gould, railroad ownerComplex, intricate design made up of towers, arches, chimneysTall stain-glass windows give sense of height and are decorativeElaborate marbled and wooden interiorLarge (64 acres) and diverse (lawns to trees) landscape part of natural designSuch Hudson River area mansions were indicative of the power of Northern industrialists
Alexander Jackson DavisB. 1803 D. 1892One of the best known designers of Gothic revivals in the 1800sBegan building in the 1820s Created architectural pattern book of Gothic revival designs in the 1830s for domestic useDesigned all buildings in Llewyan park in Orange, NJ in the 1850s
About This Style of Archite...