nickel and nickel compounds

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  • NICKEL AND NICKEL COMPOUNDSNickel and nickel compounds were considered by previous IARC Working Groups in 1972, 1975, 1979, 1982, 1987, and 1989 (IARC, 1973, 1976, 1979, 1982, 1987, 1990). Since that time, new data have become available, these have been incorporated in the Monograph, and taken into consideration in the present evaluation.

    1. Exposure Data

    1.1 Identification of the agents

    Synonyms, trade names, and molecular formulae for nickel, nickel alloys, and selected nickel compounds are presented in Table 1.1. This list is not exhaustive, nor does it necessarily reflect the commercial importance of the various nickel-containing substances, but it is indicative of the range of nickel alloys and compounds available, including some compounds that are important commercially, and those that have been tested in biological systems. Several inter-mediary compounds occur in refineries that cannot be characterized, and are thus not listed.

    1.2 Chemical and physical properties of the agents

    Nickel (atomic number, 28; atomic weight, 58.69) is a metal, which belongs to group VIIIB of the periodic table. The most important oxida-tion state of nickel is +2, although the +3 and +4 oxidation states are also known (Tundermann et al., 2005). Nickel resembles iron, cobalt, and copper in its chemical properties. However,

    unlike cobalt and iron, it is normally only stable in aqueous solution in the + 2 oxidation state (Kerfoot, 2002). Selected chemical and physical properties for nickel and nickel compounds, including solubility data, were presented in the previous IARC Monograph (IARC, 1990), and have been reported elsewhere (ATSDR, 2005).

    1.3 Use of the agents

    The chemical properties of nickel (i.e. hard-ness, high melting point, ductility, malleability, somewhat ferromagnetic, fair conductor of heat and electricity) make it suitable to be combined with other elements to form many alloys (NTP, 2000; Tundermann et al., 2005). It imparts such desirable properties as corrosion resistance, heat resistance, hardness, and strength.

    Nickel salts are used in electroplating, ceramics, pigments, and as intermediates (e.g. catalysts, formation of other nickel compounds). Sinter nickel oxide is used in nickel catalysts in the ceramics industry, in the manufacture of alloy steel and stainless steel, in the manu-facture of nickel salts for specialty ceramics, and in the manufacture of nickelcadmium (NiCd) batteries, and nickelmetal-hydride batteries. Nickel sulfide is used as a catalyst in

    169

  • IARC MONOGRAPHS 100C

    170

    Tabl

    e 1.

    1 Ch

    emic

    al n

    ames

    (CA

    S na

    mes

    are

    giv

    en in

    ital

    ics)

    , syn

    onym

    s, a

    nd m

    olec

    ular

    form

    ulae

    or c

    ompo

    siti

    ons

    of n

    icke

    l, ni

    ckel

    allo

    ys a

    nd s

    elec

    ted

    nick

    el c

    ompo

    unds

    Che

    mic

    al n

    ame

    CA

    S R

    eg. N

    o.Sy

    nony

    ms

    Form

    ula

    Met

    allic

    nic

    kel a

    nd n

    icke

    l allo

    ysN

    icke

    l74

    40-0

    2-0

    C.I.

    777

    75; N

    icke

    l ele

    men

    tN

    iFe

    rron

    icke

    l11

    133-

    76-9

    Iron

    allo

    y (b

    ase)

    , Fe,

    Ni;

    nick

    el a

    lloy

    (non

    base

    ) Fe,

    Ni

    Fe, N

    iN

    icke

    l alu

    min

    ium

    al

    loys

    6143

    1-86

    -5

    3718

    7-84

    -1Ra

    ney

    nick

    el; R

    aney

    allo

    yN

    iAl

    Nic

    kel o

    xide

    s and

    hyd

    roxi

    des

    Nic

    kel h

    ydro

    xide

    (a

    mor

    phou

    s)12

    054-

    48-7

    (1

    1113

    -74-

    9)N

    icke

    l dih

    ydro

    xide

    ; nic

    kel (

    II) h

    ydro

    xide

    ; nic

    kel (

    2+) h

    ydro

    xide

    ; nic

    kel

    hydr

    oxid

    e (N

    i(OH

    )2);

    nick

    elou

    s hyd

    roxi

    deN

    i(OH

    ) 2

    Nic

    kel m

    onox

    ide

    1313

    -99-

    1 11

    099-

    02-8

    Blac

    k ni

    ckel

    oxi

    dea ;

    gree

    n ni

    ckel

    oxi

    de; m

    onon

    icke

    l oxi

    de; n

    icke

    l mon

    ooxi

    de;

    nick

    elou

    s oxi

    de; n

    icke

    l oxi

    de (N

    iO);

    nick

    el (I

    I) o

    xide

    ; nic

    kel (

    2+) o

    xide

    NiO

    3449

    2-97

    -2Bu

    nsen

    ite (N

    iO)

    Nic

    kel t

    riox

    ide

    1314

    -06-

    3Bl

    ack

    nick

    el o

    xide

    d; d

    inic

    kel t

    riox

    ide;

    nic

    kelic

    oxi

    de; n

    icke

    l oxi

    de; n

    icke

    l (II

    I)

    oxid

    e; n

    icke

    l oxi

    de (N

    i 2O3);

    nic

    kel p

    erox

    ide;

    nic

    kel s

    esqu

    ioxi

    deN

    i 2O3

    Nic

    kel s

    ulfid

    esN

    icke

    l dis

    ulfid

    e12

    035-

    51-7

    12

    035-

    50-6

    Nic

    kel s

    ulfid

    e (N

    iS2)

    Vaes

    ite (N

    iS2)

    NiS

    2

    Nic

    kel s

    ulfid

    e (a

    mor

    phou

    s)16

    812-

    54-7

    (1

    1113

    -75-

    0)M

    onon

    icke

    l mon

    osul

    fide;

    nic

    kel m

    ono-

    sulfi

    de; n

    icke

    l mon

    osul

    fide

    (NiS

    ); ni

    ckel

    ous

    sulfi

    de; n

    icke

    l (II

    ) sul

    fide;

    nic

    kel (

    2+) s

    ulfid

    e;

    NiS

    1314

    -04-

    1 (6

    1026

    -96-

    8)N

    icke

    l sul

    fide (

    NiS

    ) M

    iller

    ite (N

    iS)

    Nic

    kel s

    ubsu

    lfide

    1203

    5-72

    -2N

    icke

    l ses

    quis

    ulfid

    e; n

    icke

    l sub

    sulfi

    de

    (Ni 3S

    2); n

    icke

    l sul

    fide (

    Ni 3S

    2); tr

    inic

    kel

    disu

    lfide

    Ni 3S

    2

    1203

    5-71

    -1H

    eazl

    ewoo

    dite

    (Ni 3S

    2); K

    hizl

    evud

    itePe

    ntland

    ite53

    809-

    86-2

    Pent

    land

    ite (F

    e 9N

    i 9S16

    )Fe

    9Ni9

    S16

    1217

    4-14

    -0Pe

    ntla

    ndite

    (Fe 0

    .40

    .6N

    i 0.4

    0.6) 9

    S 8

  • Nickel and nickel compounds

    171

    Che

    mic

    al n

    ame

    CA

    S R

    eg. N

    o.Sy

    nony

    ms

    Form

    ula

    Nic

    kel s

    alts

    Nic

    kel c

    arbo

    nate

    3333

    -67-

    3C

    arbo

    nic a

    cid,

    nic

    kel (

    2+) s

    alt (

    1:1)

    ; nic

    kel c

    arbo

    nate

    (1:1)

    ; nic

    kel (

    II) c

    arbo

    nate

    ; ni

    ckel

    (2+)

    car

    bona

    te; n

    icke

    l car

    bona

    te (N

    iCO

    3); n

    icke

    l (2+

    ) car

    bona

    te (N

    iCO

    3);

    nick

    el m

    onoc

    arbo

    nate

    ; nic

    kelo

    us c

    arbo

    nate

    NiC

    O3

    Basic

    nic

    kel c

    arbo

    nate

    s12

    607-

    70-4

    Car

    boni

    c ac

    id, n

    icke

    l sal

    t, ba

    sic; n

    icke

    l car

    bona

    te h

    ydro

    xide

    (Ni 3(

    CO

    3)(O

    H) 4)

    ; ni

    ckel

    , (ca

    rbon

    ato(

    2-))

    tetr

    ahyd

    roxy

    tri-

    NiC

    O3.2

    Ni(O

    H) 2

    1212

    2-15

    -5N

    icke

    l bis(

    carb

    onat

    o(2-

    )) he

    xahy

    drox

    ypen

    ta-;

    nick

    el h

    ydro

    xyca

    rbon

    ate

    2NiC

    O3.3

    Ni(O

    H) 2

    Nic

    kel a

    ceta

    te37

    3-02

    -4A

    cetic

    aci

    d, n

    icke

    l (2+

    ) sal

    t; ni

    ckel

    (II)

    ace

    tate

    ; nic

    kel (

    2+) a

    ceta

    te; n

    icke

    l di

    acet

    ate;

    nic

    kelo

    us a

    ceta

    teN

    i(OC

    OC

    H3) 2

    Nic

    kel a

    ceta

    te te

    trah

    ydra

    te60

    18-8

    9-9

    Ace

    tic a

    cid,

    nic

    kel (

    +2) s

    alt,

    tetr

    ahyd

    rate

    Ni(O

    CO

    CH

    3) 2.

    4H2O

    Nic

    kel a

    mm

    oniu

    m

    sulfa

    tes

    15-6

    99-1

    8-0

    Am

    mon

    ium

    nic

    kel s

    ulfa

    te ((

    NH

    4) 2N

    i(SO

    4) 2);

    nick

    el a

    mm

    oniu

    m su

    lfate

    (N

    i(NH

    4) 2(S

    O4) 2

    ); su

    lfuri

    c aci

    d, a

    mm

    oniu

    m n

    icke

    l (2+

    ) sal

    t (2:

    2:1)

    Ni(N

    H4) 2

    (SO

    4) 2

    Nic

    kel a

    mm

    oniu

    m su

    lfate

    he

    xahy

    drat

    e25

    749-

    08-0

    Am

    mon

    ium

    nic

    kel s

    ulfa

    te ((

    NH

    4) 2N

    i 2(SO

    4) 3);

    sulfu

    ric

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