nichols sedimentology and stratigraphy

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  • Comp. by: GBalasubramanian Stage : Proof ChapterID: 9781405193795_1_FM Date:26/2/09Time:21:10:39 Filepath:H:/00_Blackwell/00_3B2/Nichols-9781405193795/appln/3B2/9781405193795_1_FM.3d

    Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

  • Comp. by: GBalasubramanian Stage : Proof ChapterID: 9781405193795_1_FM Date:26/2/09Time:21:10:39 Filepath:H:/00_Blackwell/00_3B2/Nichols-9781405193795/appln/3B2/9781405193795_1_FM.3d

    COMPANION CD-ROM

    A companion CD-ROM with additional illustrative material, prepared by the author, is includedwith this book.

  • Comp. by: GBalasubramanian Stage : Proof ChapterID: 9781405193795_1_FM Date:26/2/09Time:21:10:40 Filepath:H:/00_Blackwell/00_3B2/Nichols-9781405193795/appln/3B2/9781405193795_1_FM.3d

    Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

    Second Edition

    Gary Nichols

    A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication

  • Comp. by: GBalasubramanian Stage : Proof ChapterID: 9781405193795_1_FM Date:26/2/09Time:21:10:40 Filepath:H:/00_Blackwell/00_3B2/Nichols-9781405193795/appln/3B2/9781405193795_1_FM.3d

    This edition first published 2009,# 2009 by Gary NicholsFirst published 1999

    Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwells publishing program has been

    merged with Wileys global Scientific, Technical and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell.

    Registered office

    John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK

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    9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK

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    111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, USA

    For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission

    to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell

    The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright,

    Designs and Patents Act 1988.

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any

    form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the

    UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.

    Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in

    electronic books.

    Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and

    product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective

    owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed

    to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding

    that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is

    required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Nichols, Gary.

    Sedimentology and stratigraphy / Gary Nichols. 2nd ed.

    p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN 978-1-4051-3592-4 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN 978-1-4051-9379-5 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Sedimentation and

    deposition. 2. Geology, Stratigraphic. I. Title.

    QE571.N53 2009

    551.303dc222008042948

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    Set in 9/11pt Photina by SPi Publisher Services, Pondicherry, India

    Printed and bound in the United Kingdom

    1 2009

  • Comp. by: GBalasubramanian Stage : Proof ChapterID: 9781405193795_1_FM Date:26/2/09Time:21:10:40 Filepath:H:/00_Blackwell/00_3B2/Nichols-9781405193795/appln/3B2/9781405193795_1_FM.3d

    Contents

    Preface, ix

    Acknowledgements, xi

    1 INTRODUCTION: SEDIMENTOLOGYAND STRATIGRAPHY, 11.1 Sedimentary processes, 11.2 Sedimentary environments and facies, 21.3 The spectrum of environments and facies, 31.4 Stratigraphy, 31.5 The structure of this book, 4Further reading, 4

    2 TERRIGENOUSCLASTIC SEDIMENTS: GRAVEL,SAND AND MUD, 52.1 Classification of sediments and sedimentary

    rocks, 52.2 Gravel and conglomerate, 72.3 Sand and sandstone, 102.4 Clay, silt and mudrock, 212.5 Textures and analysis of terrigenous clastic

    sedimentary rocks, 232.6 Terrigenous clastic sediments: summary, 27Further reading, 27

    3 BIOGENIC, CHEMICAL ANDVOLCANOGENIC SEDIMENTS, 283.1 Limestone, 283.2 Evaporite minerals, 363.3 Cherts, 383.4 Sedimentary phosphates, 383.5 Sedimentary ironstone, 383.6 Carbonaceous (organic) deposits, 403.7 Volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, 41Further reading, 43

    4 PROCESSES OF TRANSPORTAND SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES, 444.1 Transport media, 444.2 The behaviour of fluids and particles

    in fluids, 454.3 Flows, sediment and bedforms, 504.4 Waves, 584.5 Mass flows, 604.6 Mudcracks, 644.7 Erosional sedimentary structures, 654.8 Terminology for sedimentary structures

    and beds, 664.9 Sedimentary structures and sedimentary

    environments, 68Further reading, 68

    5 FIELD SEDIMENTOLOGY, FACIESAND ENVIRONMENTS, 695.1 Field sedimentology, 695.2 Graphic sedimentary logs, 705.3 Palaeocurrents, 755.4 Collection of rock samples, 785.5 Description of core, 795.6 Interpreting past depositional

    environments, 805.7 Reconstructing palaeoenvironments in space

    and time, 845.8 Summary: facies and environments, 85Further reading, 86

    6 CONTINENTS: SOURCES OFSEDIMENT, 876.1 From source of sediment to formation

    of strata, 876.2 Mountain-building processes, 886.3 Global climate, 88

  • Comp. by: GBalasubramanian Stage : Proof ChapterID: 9781405193795_1_FM Date:26/2/09Time:21:10:40 Filepath:H:/00_Blackwell/00_3B2/Nichols-9781405193795/appln/3B2/9781405193795_1_FM.3d

    6.4 Weathering processes, 896.5 Erosion and transport, 936.6 Denudation and landscape evolution, 956.7 Tectonics and denudation, 996.8 Measuring rates of denudation, 1006.9 Denudation and sediment supply: summary, 101Further reading, 101

    7 GLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS, 1027.1 Distribution of glacial environments, 1027.2 Glacial ice, 1047.3 Glaciers, 1057.4 Continental glacial deposition, 1077.5 Marine glacial environments, 1107.6 Distribution of glacial deposits, 1127.7 Ice, climate and tectonics, 1127.8 Summary of glacial environments, 113Further reading, 113

    8 AEOLIAN ENVIRONMENTS, 1148.1 Aeolian transport, 1148.2 Deserts and ergs, 1168.3 Characteristics of wind-blown particles, 1168.4 Aeolian bedforms, 1188.5 Desert environments, 1208.6 Aeolian deposits outside deserts, 1268.7 Summary, 127Further reading, 127

    9 RIVERS AND ALLUVIAL FANS, 1299.1 Fluvial and alluvial systems, 1299.2 River forms, 1319.3 Floodplain deposition, 1399.4 Patterns in fluvial deposits, 1399.5 Alluvial fans, 1419.6 Fossils in fluvial and alluvial

    environments, 1469.7 Soils and palaeosols, 1469.8 Fluvial and alluvial fan deposition:

    summary, 149Further reading, 149

    10 LAKES, 15110.1 Lakes and lacustrine environments, 15110.2 Freshwater lakes, 15310.3 Saline lakes, 15710.4 Ephemeral lakes, 15810.5 Controls on lacustrine deposition, 16010.6 Life in lakes and fossils in lacustrine

    deposits, 160

    10.7 Recognition of lacustrine facies, 161Further reading, 161

    11 THE MARINE REALM: MORPHOLOGYAND PROCESSES, 16311.1 Divisions of the marine realm, 16311.2 Tides, 16511.3 Wave and storm processes, 16911.4 Thermo-haline and geostrophic

    currents, 17011.5 Chemical and biochemical sedimentation

    in oceans, 17011.6 Marine fossils, 17211.7 Trace fossils, 17311.8 Marine environments: summary, 178Further reading, 178

    12 DELTAS, 17912.1 River mouths, deltas and estuaries, 17912.2 Types of delta, 17912.3 Delta environments and successions, 18212.4 Variations in delta morphology

    and facies, 18412.5 Deltaic cycles and stratigraphy, 19312.6 Syndepositional deformation

    in deltas, 19512.7 Recognition of deltaic deposits, 196Further reading, 198

    13 CLASTIC COASTS ANDESTUARIES, 19913.1 Coasts, 19913.2 Beaches, 20113.3 Barrier and lagoon systems, 20313.4 Tides and coastal systems, 20613.5 Coastal successions, 20713.6 Estuaries, 20713.7 Fossils in coastal and estuarine

    environments, 212Further reading, 214

    14 SHALLOW SANDY SEAS, 21514.1 Shallow marine environments of terrigenous

    clastic deposition, 21514.2 Storm-dominated shallow clastic seas, 21714.3 Tide-dominated clastic shallow seas, 22014.4 Responses to change in sea level, 22214.5 Criteria for the recognition of sandy

    shallow-marine sediments, 223Further reading, 224

    vi Contents

  • Comp. by: GBalasubramanian Stage : Proof ChapterID: 9781405193795_1_FM Date:26/2/09Time:21:10:40 Filepath:H:/00_Blackwell/00_3B2/Nichols-9781405193795/appln/3B2/9781405193795_1_FM.3d

    15 SHALLOW MARINECARBONATE AND EVAPORITEENVIRONMENTS, 22515.1 Carbonate and evaporite depositional

    environments, 22515.2 Coastal carbonate and evaporite

    environments, 22815.3 Shallow marine carbonate environments, 23315.4 Types of carbonate platform, 23715.5 Marine evaporites, 24215.6 Mixed carbonateclastic environments, 245Further reading, 245

    16 DEEP MARINE ENVIRONMENTS, 24716.1 Ocean basins, 24716.2 Submarine fans, 25016.3 Slope aprons, 25616.4 Contourites, 25716.5 Oceanic sediments, 25816.6 Fossils in deep ocean sediments, 26116.7 Recognition of deep ocean deposits:

    summary, 261Further reading, 262

    17 VOLCANIC ROCKS ANDSEDIMENTS, 26317.1 Volcanic rocks and sediment, 26317.2 Transport and de

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