“never forget national humiliation”
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Never forget national humiliation
1 (top right):
The September 18
2 (bottom right):
Although people all over the world cherish their own memorials, the special eff ort made by the Chinese government to construct memory sites and use them for ideological reeducation is unparalleled.
32 | The Focus: Postcolonial dialogues The Newsletter | No.59 | Spring 2012
While the whole world is talking about Chinas rise, all focus has been placed on understanding Chinas present policies and future orientations. However, very little attention is still devoted to examining Chinas colonial past and how the post-colonial consciousness aff ects present China. For many people, especially those from the countries of Chinas ex-colonial aggressors, the notion that time heals all wounds is often taken for granted. Many also assume that Chinas recent successes have provided healing for its historical wounds. Unfortunately, this assumption is wrong. Zheng Wang
OVER THE PAST THREE DECADES, it is true that China has undergone a tremendous transformation; no longer weak and isolated, it is now a strong state that has the power to impact global aff airs. However, the Chinese have not really moved forward from their past humiliation. Chinese historical consciousness of the so-called Bainian guochi (a century of national humiliation) still plays a powerful role, aff ecting Chinese politics, foreign relations, and national psyche. Bainian guochi is a term the Chinese have used to refer to the period from the outbreak of the fi rst Opium War in 1839 until the end of World War II in 1945. In this century, China was attacked, bullied, and torn asunder by imperialists.
In fact, Chinas new accomplishments and growing confi dence have actually often served to strengthen this historical consciousness. They have, at times, served to activate, not assuage, peoples memory of the past humiliation. This is why it is very important for todays people to understand the Chinese historical consciousness. Chinas rise should not be understood through a single lens like economics or military growth, but rather viewed through a more comprehensive lens which takes national identity and domestic discourse into account. In this article, I will report on Chinese discourse of its colonial past by introducing a sculpture, a textbook and a poem.
Never forget: a sculptureMuseums and public monuments have played very important roles in the formation of a national memory and identity in diff erent societies. Today, the Chinese people are living in a forest of monuments, all of which are used to represent the past to its citizens.
September 18 Historical Museum was built in Shenyang, a city in northeast China, in 1991. 18 September 1931 is an important date in the Chinese collective memory. On this day, the Japanese army, which had been occupying parts of Manchuria since the fi rst Sino-Japanese War, launched a surprise attack on Shenyang and began its full-scale invasion of China. Within a week, the Japanese had conquered most of Manchuria. According to Chinese historical narrative, the fourteen years from 1931 to 1945 under Japanese occupation were the darkest period of Chinese history and the most painful memory for many Chinese.
To commemorate this incident, the Chinese constructed this museum, located on the exact site where the attack occurred in 1931. As depicted in fi gure 1, the outer appearance of the museum depicts a large, very impressive sculpture designed to look like an open calendar. This calendar is inscribed with the date 18 September, as the Chinese hoped that through this particular construction, future generations would not forget this historic date. The sculpture serves as a permanent reminder of this humiliating piece of history.
On the other side of the museum, a huge bronze bell engraved with the four Chinese characters Wuwang Guochi (), meaning Never Forget National Humiliation, has been erected. In fi gure 2, a group of students are listening to a senior citizen, a victim of the Japanese invasion, telling her stories. Not far from the bell, there is a huge marble stone inscribed on former Chinese President Jiang Zemins dedication Never forget September 18 (Wuwang 9-18).
Although people all over the world cherish their own memorials, the special eff ort made by the Chinese government to construct memory sites and use them for ideological reeducation is unparalleled. As part of the contents of the Patriotic Education Campaign beginning in 1991, Beijing required local governments of all levels to establish patriotic education bases. Visiting these memory sites has become a regular part of school curriculum.1
The Focus: Postcolonial dialogues | 33The Newsletter | No.59 | Spring 2012
Postcolonial consciousness and Chinas rise
Lest you forget: a textbookOn 5 April 2005, the Japanese Education Ministry approved a new junior high school textbook titled Atarashii Rekishi Kykasho (new history textbook), written by the Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform. This move ignited immediate outrage among some Asian countries, especially China and South Korea. Critics have charged that this organization has been revising history textbooks to minimize Japans culpability for its wartime actions.
According to critics, the textbook provides a distorted and self-serving account of Japans colonial and wartime activi-ties. For example, you will fi nd no mention of the Nanjing Massacre. Indeed, there is only one sentence that refers to this event: they [the Japanese troops] occupied that city in December. The editors of the book added a footnote here, which makes the fi rst, and only, direct reference to The Nanjing/Nanking Incident: At this time, many Chinese soldiers and civilians were killed or wounded by Japanese troops (the Nanking Incident). Documentary evidence has raised doubts about the actual number of victims claimed by the incident. The debate continues even today.2
On 9 April 2005, an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 Chinese demonstrators marched to the Japanese Embassy in Beijing, throwing stones at the facility. The next day, 20,000 protesters demonstrated in two cities in southern Guangdong Province (see fi gure 3), and protestors attacked a Japanese department store in Shenzhen. Two weeks after the approval of the textbook, anti-Japanese protests broke out in more than ten Chinese cities. In each case, protesters chanted slogans and burned Japanese fl ags. People carried banners with slogans reading: Japan must apologize to China, Never forget national humiliation, and Boycott Japanese goods.
Anybody who has visited the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall will have a better understanding as to why the Chinese are so angry over this Japanese textbook. A huge stone wall at the entrance of the Memorial Hall has the death toll inscribed as Victims 300,000. The word victim is engraved in Chinese, English, and Japanese. The decision to make this fi gure recognizable in three diff erent languages illustrates the Chinese insistence on the number of casualties. Visitors will also notice that another monument at the memorial depicts the same number of 300,000 casualties, but in eleven diff erent languages (see fi gure 4). These two monuments are testaments to historical controversy, as they highlight how a group of people chooses to remember their historical narrative.
One may wonder why history education and history textbooks in particular are important enough to fi ght over. For countries like China and Korea, while they teach their younger generation to never forget their traumatic past, they cannot accept their ex-colonial aggressors hiding this part of history from their own youth. History textbooks thus become a source of confl ict in East Asia.
What do you want from us: a poemIn an article in Forbes Magazine in 2008, Lee Kuan Yew, the former Premier of Singapore, quoted a Chinese poem 3 (see left). Reading this poem, Lee, as one of the few world leaders knowledgeable of both Western and Eastern culture, said that he was sad to see the gulf in understanding between Chinese and Westerners. This poem illustrates the obvious Chinese frustration at not being understood, and the great perceptional divide between Chinese and Westerners.
The poem is striking in its simplicity in understanding history. Some statements are also based on myths. For example, the phrase, Sick Man of East Asia, is actually the Chinese peoples imaged humiliation, as it was initially utilized to describe the weak and corrupt condition of the Qing Empire, with no actual reference to the health or physique of the Chinese people.
However, this anonymous Chinese poem represents a typical postcolonial discourse. It has been widely distributed and discussed in Internet chat rooms, and many conclude that this poem aptly refl ects Chinese sentiment. Westerners may perceive the incidents listed in this poem as independent and incomparable events that happened over an extended period of time. Many Chinese, however, view these events as current, and feel closely connected with what happened one hundred years ago. The century of humiliation has provided the Chinese with plenty of historical analogies to use, and they often draw parallels between current and historical events. The legacy of history has provided the Chinese with the lens that they use to interpret current issues. Without understanding this special postcolonial sentiment, it is impossible for the West to fully understand current Chinese behaviors and its future intentions.
Never Forget: national ideasAccording to Jeff rey Legro, many societies have dominant ideas or national ideas, which he defi ned as the collective beliefs of societies and organizations about how to act.5 I bel