neuroanatomy ii

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  • 1. Neuroanatomy II Autonomic Nervous System (4.1) Neuroanatomical Divisions of the Brain (4.1) hindbrain midbrain forebrain ventricles Review

2. Autoreceptors A) are located on the presynaptic membrane B) are located on the postsynaptic membrane C) decrease the amount of neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft D) two of the above 3. Sensory information from the foot enters the spinal cord through A) central canal B) dorsal root C) dorsal horn D) all of the above 4. The Autonomic Nervous System SNS: facilitates energy expenditure PNS: facilitates energy conservation 5. Major Neuroanatomical Divisions of the Brain Hindbrain: pons, medulla, cerebellum Midbrain: tectum, superior/inferior colliculus, substantia nigra Forebrain: thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia Fish Brain 6. Medulla: just above the spinal cord important for vital reflexes damage is often fatal Pons: lies anterior and ventral to the medulla contains lots of axons Cerebellum: lies dorsal to the medulla controls movement, attention The Hindbrain The Human Brainstem 7. Tectum: roof of the midbrain receives information from the eyes and the ears Superior and Inferior Colliculi: SC: visual sensation IC: auditory sensation orientation (motor) Substantia Nigra: important dopaminergic circuit involved in the control of movement cell death: Parkinsons disease The Midbrain The Human Brainstem 8. several interlinked structures comprise the limbic system important for motivated/emotional behaviors (eating, drinking, sexual activity, aggressive behavior) The Forebrain: Limbic System 9. receives and processes sensory information (except olfaction) sends the output to the cerebral cortex The Forebrain: Thalamus 10. contains several distinct nuclei; widespread connections communicates with the pituitary gland to regulate the release of several hormones regulates motivated behavior The Forebrain: Hypothalamus 11. three major structures: caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus highly conserved across evolution (amphibians - mammals) important for sequences of behavior & certain aspects of memory and emotional expression deteriorates in Parkinsons and Huntingtons diseases The Forebrain: Basal Ganglia 12. The Ventricles contain cerebral spinal fluid (CSF); similar to blood plasma formed by the choroid plexus; reabsorbed into the blood vessels protective function; provides a reservoir for hormones and nutrients 13. The Cranial Nerves: Location 1 - olfactory nerve (s) 2 - optic nerve (s) 3 - oculomotor nerve (s/m) 4 - trochlear nerve (s/m) 5 - trigeminal nerve (s/m) 6 - abducens (s/m) 7 - facial nerve (s/m) 8 - statoacoustic nerve (s) 9 - glosophayyngeal nerve (s/m) 10 - vagus nerve (s/m) 11 - accessary nerve (m) 12 - hypoglossal nerve (s/m) 14. The Cranial Nerves: Function 15. Meningitis & Encephalitis Meningitis: infection of the meninges adults: usually begins with a severe headache and a stiff neck children: convulsions are common inflammation around the brain causes pressure points on the brainstem/SC Encephilitis: infection of the brain symptoms vary depending upon the site of infection Meninges: membrane lining the brain