neuro anatomy

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radiology brain anatomt in sectional ct and mr images

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Radio-Anatomy BrainDr.DneshResdentDept.of RadodagnossR.N.T.Medca Coege UdapurIntroduction: - The parts are Cerebrum or forebran Mdbran PonsMedua obongata Cerebeum or hndbran Embryological development The bran and spna cord deveop from ectoderm arranged n a tubuar structure caed the neura tube Before the neura tube has competey cosed, t s dvsbe nto an enarged crana part and a cauda tubuar part. The enarged crana part forms the bran. The cauda tubuar part forms the spna cord. The anteror part of the neutra tube expands, and constrctons appear that create three regons, caed Prmary bran vesces : prosencephaon (forebran), Mesencephaon ( Mdbran ), Rhombencephaon (Hnd bran). PRIMARY BRAIN VESICLES &THEIR SUB DIVISIONSCerebrumThe cerebrum (or telencephalon) s pared structurecomposed of two cerebra hemspheres (eft and rght) each contanng a centra space, the atera ventrcetakes up most of the ntracrana cavty and es above the tentorum cerebeParts Incude-cerebra hemspheresbasa gangaofactory bubwhte matter tractscorpus caosumanteror commssurenterna capsueFronta LobeThe fronta obe es on the orbta pate of the fronta bone and s bound by ts vertca and horzonta pates. It s the area of the cerebrum posteror to the fronta poe, anteror to the centra (Roandc) sucus and superomeday to the atera sucus and tempora obeThe frontal pole s ananatomca andmark that corresponds to the anteror ponted end of a cerebra hemsphere. It contans the frontopolar cortex (FPC), or Brodmann area 10, whch s thought to contrbute to many aspects of cogntonBlood supplyMCA - atera fronta obeACA - meda fronta obemportant areas ncude:precentral gyruses anteror to thecentra sucus and anges anteroaterayas t moves superonferoycontans theprmary motor cortexprecentra sucus, premotor cortex, and suppementary motor areaeanterorysuperior frontal gyrusseperated from the mdde fronta gyrus by the superor fronta sucusmiddle frontal gyrusseperated from the nferor fronta gyrus by the nferor fronta sucusinferior frontal gyruspars opercuarsn posteror aspect(contans Broca's area)pars tranguarsV-shaped area anterory used a andmark to nd the pars opercuars and hence Broca's areaDWI & Far mages Showng Infarct Precentra GyrusPareta obeocatedbetween the fronta and occpta obes andunderyng the pareta boneThe obe extends from the centra sucus anterory, whch separates t from the fronta obe,to the pareto-occpta sucus posterory, whch separates tfrom the occpta obe. The atera sucus corresponds to ts nferoatera boundary, separatng t from the tempora obe.Meday, t s connedby the meda ongtudna ssure whch dvdes both cerebra hemspheres. Blood supplyMCAACA-meda pareta obePCA-posteror meda pareta obeSulci and gyriatera surfacepostcentra gyrus (prmary sensory area)superor pareta obuenferor pareta obue (Werncke's area)supramargna gyrusanguar gyrusmeda surfaceparacentra obueprecuneusMR Imagng Showng post centra gyra nfarctOccpta obeoccipital lobe s ocated n the posterior (back) regon of the cerebrum, superior to (above) the cerebeum Anterory pareto-occpta sucus separates tfrom the pareta obeImportant areas ncudeoccpta poengua gyrusoccptotempora (fusform) gyrus (Brodmann area 37)cacarne(vsua)cortexcuneusInfarct occpta obeTempora Lobeargey occupes the mdde crana fossaThe obe extends superory to the Syvan ssure, and posterory to an magnary ne; the atera paretotempora ne, whch separates the tempora obe from the nferor pareta obue superory and the occpta obe nferory. The mdde crana fossa forms ts anteror and nferor boundares.The tempora obe can be dvded nto two man sectons:neocortext (sometmes referred to smpy as tempora obe)atera and nferoatera surfacescomprsed of standard cerebra cortexmesa tempora obe (sometmes referred to as the mbc obe) ncudng the hppocampus, amygdaa, parahppocampa gyrus, uncus, dentate gyrusT2W mage showng nfarct tempora obeNon-enhanced CT showng hypodense regon wth oca edema nvovng basa parts of the eft tempora obe ncudng parahppocampa gyrus.PCA nfarcton nvovng the meda tempora obeSucinterhemispheric aso know as the medial longitudinal fssure, s a deep groove ocated n the mdne between both cerebra hemspheres and contans the fax cerebrlateral (Sylvian)sulcus-separates the fronta and pareta obes superory from the tempora obe nferory. The nsuar cortex s ocated mmedatey nterna to the Syvan ssure.central (Rolandic) sulcus-separates the fronta obe from the pareta obe, and aso separates the prmary motor cortex anterory from the prmary somatosensory cortex posterory callosal sulcus- sucus n the bran between the cnguate gyrus and corpus caosum, beow the ongtudna cerebra ssure.cingulate sulcus- on the meda wa of the cerebra cortex. The fronta and pareta obes are separated from the cnguate gyrus by the cnguate sucusmarginal sulcus aso known aspars marginalis) s the extenson of the cnguate sucus posterosuperory, separatng theparacentra obue from the precuneus on the meda surface of the cerebra hemspheres. It is an excellent landmark to help confrm the location of the central sulcus, whch ocated one sucus anteror to the margna sucus, on the other sde of the precentra gyrus.parieto-occipital fssurecalcarine fssure - ocated on the meda surface of the occpta obe and dvdes the vsua cortex (aka cacarne cortex) nto two. Beow the ssure s the nfracacarne regon, comprsed of the fusform gyrus and ngua gyrus, whst above the ssure s the cuneus.Cnguate sucus Caosa Sucus ost !ontrast Axial "R #mage of the brainost !ontrast sagittal $% &eighted "'R'#' Section at the level of (oramen "agnumCsterna Magna. Cervca Cord. Nasopharynx. Mandbe. Maxary Snus ost !ontrast Axial "R #mage of the brainost !ontrast sagittal $% &td "'R'#'Section at the level of medullaSgmod Snus Medua Interna |uguar Ven Cerebear Tons Orbts ICATemporaobeost !ontrast sagittal $% &td "'R'#' Section at the level of onsCerebear HemsphereVerms IV VentrcePonsBasar ArteryCavernous SnusMCPIACMastod Snus ost !ontrast Axial "R #mage of the brainost !ontrast sagittal $% &td "'R'#' Section at the level of "id BrainAqueduct of SyvusOrbtsPosteror Cerebra ArteryMdde Cerebra Artery MdbranFrontaLobeTempora LobeOccpta Lobe(ig' %') ost !ontrast Axial "R #mage of the brainost !ontrast sagittal $% &td "'R'#' Section at the level of the### *entricleOccpta LobeIII VentrceFronta obe $emporal +obe Sylvian (issure (ig' %', ost !ontrast Axial "R #mage of the brainost !ontrast sagittal $% &td "'R'#' Section at the level of $halamusSuperor Sagtta SnusOccpta LobeChorod Pexus . Interna Cerebra VenFronta HornThaamusTemp LobeInterna Capsue. PutamenCaudate NuceusFronta Lobeost !ontrast sagittal $% &td "'R'#'Section at the level of !orpus !allosumGenu of corpus caosum Spenum of corpus caosumChorod pexus wthn the body of atera ventrce ost !ontrast Axial "R #mage of the brainost !ontrast sagittal $% &td "'R'#' Section at the level of Body of !orpus !allosumPareta LobeBody of the Corpus CaosumFronta Lobe ost !ontrast Axial "R #mage of the brainost !ontrast sagittal $% &td "'R'#' Section above the !orpus !allosumPareta LobeFronta Lobe "R# BRA#- .SA/#$$A+ S0!$#1-S Grey MatterWhte MatterWhte MatterCerebeumGrey MatterFronta LobePareta LobeTempora LobeLatera Sucus Occpta LobeGyr of cerebra cortexSuc of cerebra CortexCerebeumFronta LobeTemporaLobeFronta LobeTempora LobePareta LobeOccptaLobeCerebeumFronta LobePareta LobeOrbtOccpta LobeTransverse snusCerebear HemsphereOptc NervePrecentra SucusLatera VentrceOccpta LobeMaxary snusCaudate NuceusCorpus caosumThaamusTonguePonsTentorum Cerebe Spenum of Corpus caosumPonsEthmod ar CesInferor nasaConchaMdbranFourth VentrceGenu of CorpusCaosumHypophyssThaamus Spenum of Corpus caosumGenu of corpus caosumPonsSuperorCocuusInferor CocuusNasa Nasa SeptumMeduaBody of corpus caosumThaamusCnguate GyrusGenu of corpuscaosumEthmod ar cesOra cavtySpenum of Corpus caosumFourth VentrceFrontaLobeMaxarySnusPareta LobeOccpta LobeCorpus CaosumThaamusCerebeumFronta LobeTemporaLobePareta LobeLatera VentrceOccpta LobeCerebeumFronta LobePareta LobeSuperor Tempora GyrusLatera SucusInferor Tempora GyrusMdde Tempora GyrusExterna Audtory Meatus. BoneInferor sagtta snusCorpus caosumInterna cerebra venVen of GaenSuperor sagtta snusPareta obeOccpta obeStraght snus. Verms. IV ventrceCerebear tonsMass ntermeda of thaamusSphenod SnusMRI BRAIN :CORONAL SECTIONS LongtudnaFssureStraght SnusSuperor Sagtta SnusSgmod SnusVermsStraght SnusCerebeumLatera Ventrce,Occpta HornArachnod VGreat CerebraVenTentorumCerebeFax CerebrLatera VentrceVerms ofCerebeumCerebeumSpenum ofCorpus caosumPosteror CerebraArterySuperor CerebearArteryForamen MagnumLatera VentrceInterna CerebraVenTentorum CerebeFourth VentrceCnguate GyrusChorod PexusSuperor CocuusCerebra AqueductCorpus CaosumThaamusPnea GandVertebra ArteryInsuaLatera SucusCerebra Pedunce OveCrus of FornxMdde CerebearPedunceCaudate NuceusThrd VentrceHppocampus PonsCorpus CaosumThaamusCerebraPedunceParahppocampagyrusLatera VentrceBody of FornxTempora Horn of Latera VentrceUncus of Tempora LobeThrd VentrceHppocampusInterna CapsueCaudate NuceusOptc TractInsuaLentform NuceusParotd GandAmygdaaHypothaamusInterna CapsueCnguate GyrusOptc NerveNasopharynxInterna Carottd ArteryLentform NuceusCaudate NuceusaLongtudnaFssureSuperor SagttaSnusLatera SucusParotd GandGenu Of Corpus CaosumTempora LobeEthmod SnusFronta LobeNasa TurbnateMassetorNasa SeptumNasaCavtyTongueMeda RectusFronta LobeLatera RectusInferor TurbnateSuperor RectusInferor RectusMaxary SnusToothGrey MatterSuperor Sagtta SnusWhte MatterEye BaMaxary SnusTongue !oronal Section of the Brain at the level of ituitary glandost !ontrast !oronal $% &eighted "R#spnpFronta obeCorpus caosumFronta hornCaudate nuceusIIIPtutary stakPtutary gandOptc nerveInterna carotd arteryCavernous snuslimbic systemThe limbic system s a compex system that conssts many of thembc obe, cortca areas and subcortca nuce that have connectons to the mbc obe.Key structures of the mbc system ncude:hppocampusparahppocampuscnguate gyrusbasoatera nuce of the amygdaasepta nucenuceus ac

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