neighbour priming in eye movements during reading

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Neighbour priming in eye movements during reading. Kevin Paterson University of Leicester SamanthaMcCormick Royal Holloway, University of London Colin Davis Royal Holloway, University of London Simon Liversedge University of Southampton. Lexical Priming in Eye Movements. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Intra-sentential inter-lexical influences during reading.

Neighbour priming in eye movements during readingKevin PatersonUniversity of Leicester

SamanthaMcCormickRoyal Holloway, University of London

Colin DavisRoyal Holloway, University of London

Simon LiversedgeUniversity of Southampton

1Lexical Priming in Eye MovementsOrthographic similarity between words affects performance in studies of isolated word recognition.

Are similar effects observed for words read normally in sentences?

How do these effects influence eye movement behaviour?2Substitution NeighboursWidespread view that reading a word activates lexical entry for that word and for orthographically similar words, known as neighbours.

A words neighbours traditionally defined as those words that can be formed by substituting one letter for another while preserving letter position and length (e.g., Coltheart et al.,1977).

e.g., tank has rank, sank, task, etc. as neighbours.3Addition & Deletion NeighboursCan also define neighbours in terms of words created by adding or deleting letters. (e.g., De Moor & Brysbaert, 2000; Davis, Perea, & Acha, 2009).

For example:

public is an addition neighbour of pubic

water is a deletion neighbour of waiter.4Isolated Word RecognitionWords with HF neighbours identified more slowly than matched controls. (e.g., Carreiras et al., 1997; Davis et al., 2009; Davis & Taft, 2005; Grainger, 1990; Grainger et al., 1989; Huntsman & Lima, 1996).

Neighbour word primes slow target word recognition.

Masked Priming: Greater inhibition for HF primes. (e.g., Brysbaert, et al., 2000; Davis & Lupker, 2006; De Moor & Brysbaert, 2000; Segui & Grainger, 1990)

Unmasked Priming: greater inhibition for LF primes. (Colombo, 1986; Lupker & Colombo, 1994; Segui & Grainger, 1990)

5Eye Movement StudiesWords with HF neighbours have longer reading times and receive more regressions than controls. (e.g., Davis et al., 2009; Perea & Pollatsek, 1998; Pollatsek et al., 1999; Slattery, 2010)

Effect attributed to misidentification of target word.

6Eye Movement StudiesOther research using boundary paradigm shows preview of HF neighbour can facilitate word processing, by activating letter representations shared with target. (Williams et al., 2006)

He felt the cold sweet on his face. * He felt the cold sleet on his face. * 7Present StudiesGrowing interest in whether lexical priming is observed between words read normally in sentences. (e.g., Carreiras et al., 2005; Frisson et al., 2009; Paterson et al., 2009, in press; Warren & Morris, 2009)

Experiment 1: Substitution neighbour priming.Experiment 2: Addition/Deletion neighbour priming.

Are effects inhibitory or facilitatory?What influence do they have on eye movements?What is the time course of effects?

8Experiment 1: Substitution NeighboursSentences contained prime-target pairs or control-target pairs matched for length and frequency.

Primes / controls displayed normally earlier in sentence than targets (mean 1.8 words apart).

Prime was higher or lower in frequency than target (HF = 316, LF = 8, p5.8). No interaction (Fs4). No interaction (Fs8). No interaction.

First Fixation DurationsGaze durations12Spill-over regionMore regressions from post-target region when target follows neighbour (Fs>4). Interaction not significant.

Evidence for misidentification of target words?

13SummaryPrior exposure to words neighbour earlier in a sentence slows subsequent processing of that word.

Effect is observed in eye movement measures associated with early word processing.

Priming influences decisions about when to move the eyes during reading.

Unlike in word recognition research, effect was not modulated by prime-target frequency.Experiment 2: Addition / Deletion NeighboursAre inhibitory priming effects observed for addition and deletion neighbours? public-pubicbeast-breast

2. Are effects influenced by the separation of prime and target words in the sentence?153 factors manipulated:Primes were LF neighbours of targets or non-neighbours.Primes & targets were close together or further apart in sentence. Neighbour primes were addition or deletion neighbours.Created by adding/deleting an interior letter.Deletion: prime = beast, target = breastAddition: prime = window, target = widow

60 sets of sentences (30 deletion, 30 addition)56 participants from University of Leicester.Method16stimuliClose prime-target pairsThe beast prime at his breast target looked scary and was desperate for a meal.

The snake control at his breast target looked scary and was desperate for a meal.

Distant prime-target pairsThe beast prime that sat quivering at his breast target looked scary and was desperate for a meal.

The snake control that sat quivering at his breast target looked scary and was desperate for a meal.17Target word reading timesInhibitory effect for addition neighbour primes only, that is larger when words are closer together.

18Target word reading timesSimilar effects for addition and deletion neighbours.

19Target word reading timesAgain, similar effects for addition and deletion neighbours.

20Spill-over RegionFurther evidence for target word misidentification.

21Regressions to Target Word22Summary & ConclusionsFurther evidence of inhibitory neighbour priming.

Observed in range of eye movement measures, but effect emerges earliest in eye movement record for addition neighbour primes. May reflect competitive advantage for longer words.

Effects for both close and distant targets, but disruption greater when words are close together.

Together, the studies clearly demonstrate that eye movements are sensitive to intra-sentential, inter-lexical influences that occur naturally within sentences.Target Word Reading TimesInhibitory priming effect for close prime-target pairs only (21 ms effect, interaction Fs>6).27Target Word Reading TimesInhibitory priming effect for both close and distant prime-target pairs (14 ms prime effect, Fs>7; interaction Fs16; interaction Fs>6).29Spill-over Region EffectsMore regressions from spill-over region when target followed close or distant neighbour prime (Fs>15).

30What is the underlying mechanism?31What Colin might say

Effect due to spreading activation in mental lexicon. A prime word activates its lexical entry and lexical entries for related words. This activation decays over time. However, there is sufficient ongoing activation to produce orthographic priming.32What Erik might think

This is an episodic memory effect. When prime and target words are read separately, target word processing evokes an episodic memory trace encoded during prime word processing, and this affects word identification.331. Decay in lexical activation

The prime activates its lexical entry and lexical entries for related words.

This activation decays rapidly, and would be expected to carry across just a few words in the sentence.

2. Episodic memory effect.

Target word processing evokes an episodic memory trace encoded during prime word processing, and this affects word identification.

Predicts longer lasting priming effects.

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