neighborhood and sense of community
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DESCRIPTIONThe study of neighborhood and sense community is important: • To improve quality of life • To promote psychological adjustment How? Developing of Social activity and harmony, promotion of democracy, reducing of segregation and anti social behaviour.
- 1. NeighborhoodandSense of CommunityElena Peruzzi
2. Why this topic is important?The study of neighborhood and sense communityis important: To improve quality of life To promote psychological adjustmentHow?Developing of Social activity and harmony, promotion of democracy,reducing of segregation and anti social behaviour.(Belle, 1982; Gottlieb, 1981; Mitchell & Trickett, 1980; Stack, 1974; Unger & Powell,1980; Unger & Wandersman, 1985; Warren, 1981; Wilcox, 1981). 3. Neighbourhood is......a locality with physical boundaries,social networks, concentrated use ofarea facilities, and special emotionaland symbolic connotations for its inhabitants(Keller, 1968, 128)...geographic units within which certainsocial relationships exist"(Downs 1981, 15)....a place that possessing "common named boundaries, more than oneinstitution identified with the area, and more than one tie of shared publicspace or social network"(Schoenberg 1979, 69). 4. Uses of neighbourhoodin public spaceThere are several uses of public neighbourhood space, for examplework, leisure activities (walking, playing), political gathering(protesting, closing street) and movement from place to place.Types of activities in outdoor public spaces (Gehl 1987) Necessary activity Optional activity Social activityDirect contacts (playing with others, greeting others andtalking to others)Passive contacts (eye contact and nodding, watching events,and listening to others) 5. Definition of Sense ofCommunitySense of Community as afeeling that members haveof belonging, a feeling thatmembers matter to oneanother and to the group,and a shared faith thatmembers needs will bemet through theircommitment to betogether.(McMillan & Chavis, 1986) 6. Elements ofSense of Community(McMillan & Chavis theory)Membership Boundaries Emotional safety A sense of belonging and identification Personal investment A common symbol system.InfluenceInfluence works both ways: members need to feel that they havesome influence in the group, and some influence by the group on itsmembers is needed for group cohesion.Integration and fulfilment of needsMembers feel rewarded in some way for their participation in thecommunity.Shared emotional connection shared history shared participation 7. Domains of sense of community Community (or place) Kim and Kaplan (2006)attachment Community identity Pedestrianism Social interaction 8. Community (or place) attachmentIt refers to residents emotional bonding or ties to their community.The sense of feeling at home in ones community can beexpressed in a variety of ways: Community Satisfaction Residents find their homes andcommunity satisfactory (C.Cook, 1988; Fried, 1982; Glynn, 1981; Hummon, 1992; Mesch&Manor, 1998;St.John, Austin,&Baba,1986; Zaff & Devlin,1998) Sense of Connectedness Residents feel attached to their community when itreminds them of their personal and community history and tradition and familiarenvironmental characteristics (Giuliani, 1991; Lalli,1992; Sampson,1988) Sense of ownership Residents feel they have a sense of control over their homes orcommunity (Appleyard&Lintell,1972;Hummon, 1992). Long-term integration long-term residence helps lead to long term socialintegration into the local area, and such integration creates an emotional bond betweenresidents and their homes and community (Goudy, 1982; Guest &Lee, 1983; Hummon, 1992;Kasarda & Janowitz, 1974; Sampson, 1988; Smith, 1985). 9. Community identityis referred to personal and public identifications with aspecific physically bounded community with it's own character. Uniqueness or distinctiveness being different from others throughassociating with a group or a place social interaction. (Twigger-Ross & Uzzell,1996) Continuity physical properties of community maintain a link betweenresidents past and present environments, which in turn helps preserve theirown and community identities (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977; Giuliani, 1991;Lalli, 1992; Rowles, 1983; Suttles, 1984) Significance self-esteem, pride, referring to a positive evaluation of one self,the group, or the place with which one identifies (Devine-Wright & Lyons, 1997;Korpela, 1989; Lalli, 1992; Lynch, 1960, 1981; Trancik, 1986) Congruence or compatibility a good fit exists when the environmentfacilitates peoples everyday lifestyle and when they can perform well in thatenvironment (Hummon, 1990 Kaplan, 1984; Twigger-Ross & Uzzell, 1996) Cohesiveness the strong character of community expressed by a sense ofhomogeneity, intimacy, and compactness (Barrett-Lennard, 1994; Campbell,Converse, & Rogers, 1976; Galster & Hesser, 1981; Robinson & Wilkinson, 1995). 10. PedestrianismPedestrianism implies that a community is designed for walking and fostering street sideactivities.WalkabilityIn a walkable community, the communitys physical environment is conducive to morewalking and less driving (Barber, 1986; Keller, 1978; Untermann, 1990)Pedestrian propinquityResidents may feel a sense of community if their community has necessary services within easy walking distance (Berry,1985; Brower,1996)Public transitwhen the community center, workplaces,and other communities are reachable by publictransportation,a community is likely to experience a sense of community and to promoteless automobile dependency (Bernick&Cervero,1997)Pedestrian-scale and street side activity (Increase comfortable feeling) 11. Social interactionis defined as formal or informal social opportunity inwhich residents attend to the quality of their relationships.Through such social interactions residents get to knowone another and gain a sense of belonging in the community.NeighboringInteractions with residents living next door or on the same block (Buckner, 1988; Festinger,Schachter, & Back, 1950; Glynn, 1986)Casual social encountersinformal social contact between residents who do not know each other and are notneighbors (Khermouch, 1995; Oldenburg, 1989)Community participationinteractions about community issues or engagement in community problems and relatedactivities (Cook, J., 1983; Rothenbuhler, Mullen, DeLarell, & Ryul Ryu, 1996; Zaff & Devlin, 1998)Social supportfriendship networks and the development of small groups that foster feelings of caring foreach other (Keane, 1991; Pretty, Conroy, Dugay, Fowler, & Williams, 1996; Schwirian & Schwirian,1993). 12. SSoocciiaall nneettwwoorrkkDefinitionSocial network is a specificset of linkages among adefined set of persons,with the additionalproperty that thecharacteristics of theselinkages as a whole maybe used to interpret thesocial behaviour of thepersons involved"(Mitchell 1969). 13. SSoocciiaall nneettwwoorrkk aannaallyyssiiss(Bridge G. 2002)Social network analysis looks at: the overall structure of ties the content of transactions regardless of spatial scale.Networks can be studied by two approaches: SociocentricThis approach infers the behaviour of individuals by their position in the overall network.Often using large-scale surveys to get an understanding of the overall structure ofa network, in which individuals appear as nodes. EgocentricThis approach to network analysis follows networks ties from individual respondents totheir social contacts. It is the egocentric approach that characterises most of theimplicit or explicit use of network analysis in neighbourhood research. Ofteninvolving quantitative surveys or in-depth qualitative analysis of life's history andexperiential qualities of network types. 14. RReellaattiioonnsshhiipp bbeettwweeeennnneeiigghhbboouurrhhooooddss aanndd nneettwwoorrkkss(Bridge G. 2002)Two points of view:Neighbourhood fosters the development of social networks throughinteraction in local public space. network study support the assertion ofthe importance of location and neighbourhood (Fischer 1982).Wellman's research supports the "community liberated" arguments in whichcommunity networks are liberated from neighbourhood. Since local tiesmake up only a small minority of people's active social networks theneighbourhood is not very important in terms of social networks."Personal community networks are rarely neighbourhood solidarities"(Wellman 1979). 15. ConclusionHow to increase social network and social activity in theneighbourhood:By improving the common areas between thehouses to afford social activities in neighbourhoods(Cooper Marcus and Sarkissian, 1986).By planning well outdoor spaces to facilitate residentsdaily informal contacts and appropriate space tointeract (Festinger et al., 1950).Any suggestion? 16. Any questions?