narratologÍa de tzvetan todorov
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DESCRIPTIONpor: Gener José Avilés Alatriste Universidad de Montemorelos. NARRATOLOGÍA DE TZVETAN TODOROV. Contenido. Preguntas generales Narratología y Tzvetan Todorov “ La estructura de la Narrativa ” Ejemplos. Preguntas generales. ¿Cuáles son las estructuras básicas posibles de la narrativa? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
por: Gener Jos Avils AlatristeUniversidad de Montemorelos
Preguntas generalesNarratologa y Tzvetan Todorov La estructura de la Narrativa Ejemplos
Cules son las estructuras bsicas posibles de la narrativa? Cules son las funciones in getting las estructuras bsicas? Y las limitaciones posibles?
Narratologa la ciencia de la narrativa; popularizada en los 1970s. Narratologa contempornea incluye narratologa comparativa, teoras la autora, enunciacion, accin, historia y narracin, recepcin, auto-referencialidad e intertextualidad. Narratologa Aplicada: psicoanlisis, estudios de gnero, lector-respuesta, crtica ideolgica.
1. Contextos sociales, Convenciones culturales TradicionesliterariasMarco terico del anlisis formal (literario,lingistico, interdisciplinario)3. Punto de vista5. Semilogos, marxistas4. Respuesta del lector2. Formalistas rusos
Levi Strauss 4 trminos (2 conjuntos binarios)V. Propp 7 esferas de acciones (Villano, hroe, falso hroe, sought-for person, etc.)y 31 funciones fuera de Russain fairy talesTzvetanTodorov centrado ms en la sintaxis; A. J. Greimas centrado en la semntica (actantesSujeto/Objeto, Emisor/Receptor, Ayudante/Oponente, and 3 estructurascontractual, performative, disyunctiva)Claude Bremond -- virtualidad una situacin abierta, una posibilidad); actualizacin o no actualizacin de la posibilidad; achievement or nonachievement. Roland Barthes 5 diferentes cdigos (S/Z). Etc.
Reductive; too static and unable to characterize the very engine that drives a narrative forward to its end, the very dynamics that dictate its shape. Ignore context depends on how it is used; The possibility of a coherent narratology, one that successfully integrates the study of the what and the way, has been put into question by poststructuralist theorists and critics invoking the so-called double logic of narrative (e.g. story and discourse, event and meaning).
(Ref. http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopkins_guide_to_literary_theory/narratology.html )
3 aspects of the narrative: semantic, syntactic and verbal (Todorovs focus is more on syntax.)Grammar of narrative sentence structure with the following basic units: 1. Propositions and sequences//sentences and paragraphs2. parts of speech characters as nouns; their attributes as adjectives, actions as verbs.
OutlineStructural approach to literature defined; Exemplified by his analysis of plot in Decameron; The nature of narrative and the principles of its analysis.
Theoretic but not descriptive, logical but not spatial. (2099)Different from both Marxism (external, an abstract structure out side of the work) and New Criticism (internal).Structuralism its object is the literary discourse rather than works of literature, literature that is virtual rather than real. (2100). New Criticism (description)articulates a paraphrase; Structuralist (poetics) lit. works abstract literary properties
Henry James p. 2101 -- disagrees with 1) isolating a texts dialogue, description for analysis; 2) disregarding the novel as a living thing, all one and continuous.Ts responses A theoretical concept (e.g. temperature) does not need to exist in a pure state; The fact that we find them (blood, muscle, etc) together does not prevent us from distinguishing them.)Subjectivity is inevitable in studies of humanities (or social science) but we can limit it.
From some stories he finds Plot unit shown as a clause; Characters as proper nouns; with adjectives; three actions as verbs violate, punish, avoid; Actions with different statuses (e.g. negation)Modality legends imperative, fairy tale optative, a wish; perceptionRelations between clauses (e.g. causal, temporal, spatial); common sequence of a group of stories (punishment avoided)
8. further analysis: a. more concrete analysis of syntax -- each clause can be written as an entire sequence; b. thematic study: study the concrete actions; c. rhetoric study: examines the verbal medium
His goal not knowledge of Decameron but an understanding of literature and plot. 1) avoid punishment: From equilibrium to a new equilibrium. 2) conversion The story illustrates the superiority of the individual over the social, or nature over culture.
Literature and poetics (2106) Ambiguity in moving back and forth between the two poles: auto-reference and its object
e.g. 3 adjectives states, interior properties and exterior conditions (status)3 verbs to modify a situation, to transgress, and to punish. (3 modesindicative, predictive and obligatory, 3 relations between propositions, 3 sequences) Ambiguity at both the levels of proposition and sequence. Boccaccio a defender of free enterprise and even, . . . , of nascent capitalism.
Peronellas story (of hiding her lover in a barrel) X commits a misdeed X modifies the situation X is not punished.
Given by Robert Scholes X A+ (XA) opt X Xa XA X = Boy A = Love, to be loved by someoneA = to seek love, to woo Opt X = Boy (X) wishes (opt) - = negation of attributes: -A lack love
Given by Robert ScholesXA + XB X-C + YaX + (X-A+X-B XC) predX (XbY)predX+XA! (XB+X-C)!imp X Eveline, Y Frank, Aa Dubliner, BCelibate, Chappyrespected, secure, a to offer an elopement; b-to accept elopement -- negative of attribute, not negative of verb pred predicts or expects, imp is implied by discourse
What could be the advantages of scientific and abstract descriptions? Can we use Todorovs method on a novel such as Heart of Darkness? Or a story from The Dubliners? A Hollywood film, The Titanic?
Chinese-American uses of traditional legends (e.g. Fox, Tang-Ao) to re-write canonical history as initial causes for disequilibrium; later confirmed to bring up a new equilibrium;How/where modification of situation is possible. The Heart of Darkness: no equilibrium, or in the final sympathy between Kurtz and Marlow. The Titanic: transgression obstacles (human and natural) a new equilibrium in spiritual love and death. The Working Girl: transgression by the women (first the boss and the secretary), mutual punishment, modification by the man.
Jonathan Cullers critique in Structuralist Poetics Modification can be done without the use of ruse or deception. -- anything which modifies a situation will receive the same structural description. Todorov has not considered what facts his theory is supposed to account for and so has not considered the adequacy of the implicit groupings which it establishes (217)Another example the sentence The man out of the last house passed on his way home can be excluded from any account of the plot -- since it has no consequences. (Barthes kernels + satellites)
Seymour Chatmans Story and Discourse p. 92 to transfer Propps and Todorovs method to any narrative macrostructure whatsoever is questionable. Most do not have the necessary overarching recurrences. The worlds of modern fiction and cinema are not two-valued, black and white, as are the Russian tales and the Decameron. P. 93 Whatever success Scholes achieves in his analysis of Eveline depends on his knowledge of the overriding thematic framework of the Dubliners. Why a Dubliner instead of an Irishwoman or a European or a female? Why celibate instead of poor. . .?