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  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Nanotechnology & Waste Water

    Contact:

    Lisa M. Farmen

    lmfarmen@gmail.com

    503-544-2330

    Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    mailto:lmfarmen@gmail.com

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Crystal Clears Mission

    To develop and commercialize

    water purification technology at

    a price the majority of the

    worlds population can afford.

    9/16/2010

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    9/16/2010

    CCT Technology Roadmap

    Vision: low cost purification

    Technology: Nano-Technology/ Clean Technology Green Technology

    Capabilities: - Effective for all classes of contaminants- Passive technology

    First step:

    Inorganics - Ligand nano-coating technology for low cost metal adsorption & recycling.

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Company Information

    Laboratories & Operations Portland, Oregon

    University of Oregon R&D Partnership

    Oregon Nano and Micro-technology Institute

    (ONAMI) Relationship

    Specialty Chemical Manufacturer Relationship

    9/16/2010

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    CCT Partners

    NSF

    University of Oregon

    ONAMI

    California Clean Tech Open Winner (WATER)

    Stanford Global World Forum

    Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    9/16/2010

    http://www.nsf.gov/index.jsp

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    CCT Seed Funding

    NSF SBIR

    P1 (R&D) (2005) $100KP2 (Commercialization) $500K U. OregonP2-R Grant (modeling) $200K U. KansasP2-S (ASU-WQC) $ 25K Arizona St.

    California Clean Tech Open Winner (WATER) $100K

    Siemens WT $ 25K

    ONAMI GAP Funding Winner $225K

    Winner Stanford Global World Forum

    Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    9/16/2010

    http://www.nsf.gov/index.jsp

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    9/16/2010

    Water Treatment Overview

    Public Water System

    Contaminant: Lead (Pb)

    Contaminants: Metals Arsenic, Mercury, Lead, Uranium, Organics - MTBE, perchlorate

    CCT

    Metal Removal

    CCT Contaminant

    Removal Solutions

    Outdoor

    CCT Purifier

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    9/16/2010

    The Problem

    Increasing water use

    Increasing contaminants

    Infrastructure investment

    Consumer concern

    Increasing regulation

    MicroorganismsDisinfection Byproduct Disinfectant

    Inorganic Chemicals

    Organic Chemicals

    Radionuclides

    Cryptosporidium

    Giardia

    Coliforms

    Turbidity

    Viruses

    Bromate

    Chlorite

    HAA5

    TTHMs

    Chloramines

    Chlorine

    Chlorine

    dioxide

    Antimony

    Arsenic

    Asbestos

    Barium

    Beryllium

    Cadmium

    Chromium

    Copper

    Cyanide

    Fluoride

    Lead

    Mercury

    Perchlorate

    Nitrate

    Selenium

    Thallium

    Acrylamide

    Alachlor

    Atrazine

    Benzene

    Benzoapyrene

    Carbofuran

    Carbon

    tetrachloride

    PCBs

    Picloram

    Styrene

    Tolulene

    Toxaphene

    Vinyl

    chloride

    Xylenes

    more

    Alpha particles

    Beta particles

    Radium

    Radon

    Uranium

    EPAs Contaminants of Concern

    New EPA Regulations:

    Lead: 0 ppb (update in 2006)

    Copper: 1.3 ppm (update in 2006)

    Arsenic: 50ppb 10ppb (2006)

    Radon: coming in 2007

    Perchlorate: coming soon

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    9/16/2010

    Water Problems in the U.S.

    Composite map of 16 water quality problems facing the U.S.

    Heavy Metals, except mercury

    Mining pollution

    Mercury contamination

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Global Arsenic Problem

    EPA imposed a new drinking

    water standard on Jan. 1, 2006,

    from 50 ppb to 10 ppb As.

    Most arsenic contamination of

    drinking water is natural, due to

    local geology and mining.

    9/16/2010

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Why Arsenic?

    Two Motivations:

    Lack of specific chelators optimized for

    As(III) coordination geometry

    Lack of supramolecular main-group

    chemistry

    OH

    HS

    SH

    2,3-dimercaptopropanolBAL Lewisite antidote

    SH

    SH

    O

    HO

    O

    HO

    2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    SO3H

    HS

    HS

    2,3-dimercapto-1-sulfonic acid1950s secret Soviet Lewisite antidote

    Widespread sources

    Found in association with Cu, Pb, Au Ore

    mining and refining; semiconductors

    Pesticides, agents of war, pharmaceuticals,

    CCA-treated lumber, minerals

    Health Effects

    1-5 mg/day weeks-monthsperipheral

    neuropathy, anemia

    >400ppb 3-7 years

    hyperpigmentation, hyperkeratosis,

    leading to lesions and cancer

    >10ppb 30-40 yearsskin cancer

    AsCl

    ClCl

    Lewisite

    Lane

    County

    9/16/2010

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Treatment Product Solutions

    Inorganic Chemicals

    Antimony

    Arsenic

    Asbestos

    Barium

    Beryllium

    Cadmium

    Chromium

    Cobalt Copper

    Cyanide

    Fluoride

    Lead

    Mercury

    Nitrate

    Selenium

    Thallium

    Method Issues

    Distillation High Disposal Costs

    Energy intensive

    Ion Exchange High Cost

    Easily fouled due to high TDS

    Flocculation Cant precipitate a chelated metal

    Reverse Osmosis Energy intensive

    High operating cost

    Adsorbents Conventional Adsorbents

    NanotechnologyCrystal Clear Technologies

    Cost

    Source: Water Sector Primer, Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, June 15, 2005, p.36, CCT estimates

    9/16/2010

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Water Flow

    Regeneration Flow

    Crystal Clear

    NMXTM Technology

    SePbAs

    HgCu

    Low cost substrate

    NMXTM nano-coating (patent pending)

    Remove targeted contaminants

    Regeneration capability

    No waste stream

    U

    Pb

    As

    Se

    Hg

    Cu

    As

    Cu

    H

    H O

    H

    H O

    H

    H O

    H

    H O

    9/16/2010

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Crystal Clears NMXTM

    Technology

    Result

    Low cost, high capacity, application

    specific filter media

    Low Cost Substrate

    SePbAs

    HgCuU

    PbAs

    Se HgCu

    As

    Cu

    Low cost substrate

    NMXTM nano-coating (patent pending)

    Remove targeted contaminants

    Regeneration capability

    No waste stream

    9/16/2010

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Metsorb

    (TiO2)

    CCT plus

    Metsorb

    (TiO2)

    Dow

    Adsorbsia

    (TiO2)

    CCT plus

    Adsorbsia

    (TiO2)

    Purolite ArsenX

    (anion

    exchanger)

    As Binding 4.78 8.82 5.87 15.75 1.70

    Cd Binding 9.29 17.64 5.87 12.60 0.28

    Se Binding 1.59 29.39 1.89 6.30 1.98

    Hg Binding -- 3.82 0.21 4.10 0.18

    Total

    Binding

    (mg/g)

    15.66 59.67 13.84 38.75 4.14

    Monofunctional Ligand Advantage

    9/16/2010

    Challenge Solution: 900 ppb As, 700 ppb Cd, 560 ppb Se, 28 ppb Hg

    Binding reported in mg contaminant removed per g material used (mg/g)

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Loading of NMX with Pb(II) and As(III/V)

    NMX media is rechargeableLead adsorption - 16%Arsenic adsorption - 10%Selenium (not graphed) 3.2% on the

    first layer

    Passed TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure)

    6.9

    100000

    160000

    0

    20000

    40000

    60000

    80000

    100000

    120000

    140000

    160000

    pp

    m

    TiO2 TiO2-Pb TiO2-Pb-L-Pb

    0

    3500

    7300

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    7000

    8000

    pp

    m

    TiO2 TiO2-As TiO2-As-L-As

  • Crystal Clear

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    % Pb Adsorbed vs. # CCT bi-functional ligand

    layerCumulative loading & % by layer

    0%

    1%

    2%

    3%

    4%

    5%

    6%

    7%

    8%

    9%

    10%

    11%

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    CCT # bi-functional ligand layer

    Pb

    Lo

    ad

    ing

    -

    Cu

    mu

    lati

    ve %

    ,

    g/g

    0.0%

    0.3%

    0.5%

    0.8%

    1.0%

    1.3%

    1.5%

    1.8%

    2.0%

    2.3%

    2.5%

    % P

    b L

    oad

    ing

    - b

    y l

    ayer

    Cum %

    % by layer

    Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    9/16/2010

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    9/16/2010

    Why we care about lead

    Source: Low Level Environmental Lead Exposure and Childrens Intellectual Function; Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, #7, July 2005.

    The Impact of Lead on our children

  • Crystal Clear

    Technologies

    Biopolymer Performance Status

    Berkeley Pit, MT % Removal, R

    Metal Cadmium Cobalt Copper Iron Manganese Nickel Zinc Sulfate

    ppm 2.1 2.0 128 635 238 1.2 622 22,200

    Batch #

    #47 2.0% 1.9% 99.9% 1.9% 2.5% 0.0% 2.6% 57.9%

    #49 2.0% 1.9% 99.9% 1.6% 1.7% 2.5% 1.8% 50.5%

    Cobalt Iron Selenium Sulfate

    Beal Mtn, MT 0.64 0.94 0.091 1,440

    #33 73% 1% 40.2%

    Power Plant FGD

    Metal A

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