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Nanotechnology and Textiles
Dr. Peter Cookson Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation
Topics covered Nanotechnology: dollars, definitions, details. Nanoscience. Nanomaterials. The Lotus effect. Applications for fibres & textiles. The future & conclusions.
Nanotechnology solutions for Victorian and Australian industry Nanotechnology Global Investment
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Europe Japan US Others
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Courtesy: Dr Peter Binks, CEO Nanotechnology Victoria
The Top Nanotech Products Of 2003
High-Performance Ski Wax
Breathable Waterproof Ski Jacket
Wrinkle-Resistant, Stain-Repellent Threads
Deep-Penetrating Skin Cream
Worlds First OLED Digital Camera
High-Tech Tennis Rackets and Balls
Nanotechnologys Disruptive Future
Photovoltaic Paint/Liquid Solar Cells
Multifunctional Dendrimers (Combination Disease Imaging and Treatment)
Self-Cleaning and Self-Freshening Clothes
Nanotechnology The design, characterisation, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanoscale. Application: useful and makes money! Nanoscale: less than 250 nm:
1 nm = 10-9 metres
What is nanotechnology?
Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Arthur C. Clarke, author
How small is nano?
cell diameter = 7000 nm DNA strand = 2 nm virus particle
= 150 nm
silicon atom = 0.2 nm
< 250 nanometres
median anti-brachial vein = 2 million nm (2 mm)
5 million red cells
Could nanobots destroy us?
Nanotechnology changing water into wine
Nanotech may spark fierce ethical row
Civilisation safe as nanobot threat fades
animation 1 animation 2
Actual application of knowledge and skills at nanometre scale for production purposes is still only possible to a very restricted extent. Nor will all the nanoscience research that is being carried out lead in the foreseeable future to nanotechnology that can be applied in practice.
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Nov 2004
The research that precedes, and underpins the success of, nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is not entirely new Carbon black used to improve wear resistance of rubber. Silver and gold particles used in glass by the ancient Romans. And Mother Nature has been active even longer: fertilisation of an embryo in reproduction; metabolic activities within cells; milk (a nanoparticle colloid); output of volcanoes - nanoparticles.
So what is new?
The development of techniques such as scanning tunnelling microscopy: to observe and manipulate
Eigler & Schweizer, 1990
data processing and display
tunnelling current amplifier
distance control and
piezoelectric tube with electrodes
Scanning Tunnelling Microscope
The evolution of materials 10,000 BC 1000 BC 0 1800 1900s 2000 2010
stone & wood iron cement steel polymers nanomaterials ?
Nano adds value by adding a nanomaterial to an existing product.
Nanoscale in one dimension Thin films, layers and surfaces: computer chips, Organic Light
Emitting Diodes (organic polymer films).
Kodak digital camera
2-10 V DC
hole injection layer
electron transport layer
high brightness and contrast, no backlight, low power
1650 viewing angle
uncapped, multi-walled carbon nanotube
capped, single-walled carbon nanotube
Nanoscale in two dimensions Carbon nanotubes: lattice of carbon atoms rolled into a
cylinder; tennis racket frames.
Nanotechnology solutions for Victorian and Australian industry Materials Revolution: Nanotubes
Source: NASA Ames Research Laboratory
Can be metallic or semiconducting
Superior mechanical properties Nanotubes
can be functionalized
Superior electrical and thermal properties
Excellent field emitter
Mechanical and electronic properties
can be tailored
Courtesy: Dr Peter Binks, Nanotechnology Victoria
Nanoscale in three dimensions Nanoparticles: zinc oxide used as UV blocking agent in
gold nanoparticles grown in solution 0 m
0 nm 75 nm
gold nanoparticle film on semiconductor base
Nanoparticles - invisibility
400 500 600 700 visible region
gamma rays 1 micron 1 mm 1 metre
X-rays UV infrared radio waves
Whats this? Its invisible beer
0.01 1 100 104 106 108 1010
Risk Perception Swiss Reinsurance Company, Zurich, 2004
Nanotechnology Small matter, many unknowns
Access to target organ through: touching, breathing and swallowing
Release of fixed nanoparticles/ nanotubes during product lifecycle?
Potential use of nanoparticles in environmental applications e.g. remediation of polluted groundwater.
Nanocomposites Formed by integrating inorganic nanoparticles into organic polymers. Benefits include: increased strength; increased chemical resistance; increased electrical conductivity; increased thermal stability; decreased permeability to gases, water
Example Nylon 6 with 3-5% nanoclay: softening temperature increased
from 600C to 1400C; used for timing belts in cars.
Precision engineering, e.g. high-quality optics Start with a larger piece of material. Etch, cut or grind a nanostructure by removing material.
Milling, e.g. nanoparticles
Self-assembly Atoms or molecules arrange themselves into ordered nanoscale structures, e.g. carbon nanotubes: common in nature, e.g. snowflakes and
Positional assembly Atoms or molecules are deliberately manipulated one-by-one.
Why are things different in the nanoworld?
light emitted from quantum dots
Quantum effect At the lower end of the nanoscale, space available to electrons is restricted: electronic, optical and magnetic
properties different from bulk properties.
Increased reactivity Surface properties predominate and reactivity enhanced: ratio of surface area to volume relatively
high for nanoparticles. 5 nm radius 50% of atoms on the
Nanoscale in Nature - The Lotus effect
protruding nubs: 20-40 microns wax crystals: 2-200 nanometres
Nanotechnology, like any other branch of science, is primarily concerned with understanding how nature works.
hydrophobic smooth surface
super-hydrophobic rough surface
Nanotechnology and textiles
The textiles industry is likely to be one of the early adopters of nanotechnology products and processes.
Nanoparticles have a range of potential applications: in the short term in new cosmetics, textiles and paints.
The Royal Society and The Royal Academy of Engineering, 2004
fibres & textiles
1. Incorporating membranes with nanoscale features into garment structures.
2. Bonding polymeric films with nanoscale features to the fibre surface.
3. Producing fibres containing nanoparticles nanocomposite fibres.
4. Electrospinning of nanofibres.
Gore-Tex membrane inner