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  • Nanotechnology and Textiles

    Dr. Peter Cookson Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Topics covered Nanotechnology: dollars, definitions, details. Nanoscience. Nanomaterials. The Lotus effect. Applications for fibres & textiles. The future & conclusions.

  • Nanotechnology solutions for Victorian and Australian industry Nanotechnology Global Investment

    135 128 190

    83

    1998

    $536

    Europe Japan US Others

    70 118 120 116

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1997

    $424

    US$ Millions

    400

    650 604

    520

    2002

    $2,174

    168 110

    245 270

    2000

    $793

    96 150 157

    255

    1999

    $658

    250

    422 380

    2001

    $1,552

    500

    Courtesy: Dr Peter Binks, CEO Nanotechnology Victoria

  • The Top Nanotech Products Of 2003

    High-Performance Ski Wax

  • Breathable Waterproof Ski Jacket

    Wrinkle-Resistant, Stain-Repellent Threads

  • Deep-Penetrating Skin Cream

    Worlds First OLED Digital Camera

  • Performance Sunglasses

    Nanocrystalline Sunscreen

  • High-Tech Tennis Rackets and Balls

  • Nanotechnologys Disruptive Future

  • Photovoltaic Paint/Liquid Solar Cells

  • Biological Electronics

    Multifunctional Dendrimers (Combination Disease Imaging and Treatment)

  • Regenerative Neurotechnology

    Self-Cleaning and Self-Freshening Clothes

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Nanotechnology The design, characterisation, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanoscale. Application: useful and makes money! Nanoscale: less than 250 nm:

    1 nm = 10-9 metres

    What is nanotechnology?

    Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Arthur C. Clarke, author

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    How small is nano?

    cell diameter = 7000 nm DNA strand = 2 nm virus particle

    = 150 nm

    silicon atom = 0.2 nm

    H2O

    < 250 nanometres

    median anti-brachial vein = 2 million nm (2 mm)

    5 million red cells

  • Could nanobots destroy us?

    Nanotechnology changing water into wine

    Nanotech may spark fierce ethical row

    Civilisation safe as nanobot threat fades

    animation 1 animation 2

  • Nanoscience

    Actual application of knowledge and skills at nanometre scale for production purposes is still only possible to a very restricted extent. Nor will all the nanoscience research that is being carried out lead in the foreseeable future to nanotechnology that can be applied in practice.

    Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Nov 2004

    The research that precedes, and underpins the success of, nanotechnology

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Nanotechnology is not entirely new Carbon black used to improve wear resistance of rubber. Silver and gold particles used in glass by the ancient Romans. And Mother Nature has been active even longer: fertilisation of an embryo in reproduction; metabolic activities within cells; milk (a nanoparticle colloid); output of volcanoes - nanoparticles.

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    So what is new?

    The development of techniques such as scanning tunnelling microscopy: to observe and manipulate

    individual atoms.

    Eigler & Schweizer, 1990

    tunnelling voltage

    data processing and display

    sample

    tip

    tunnelling current amplifier

    distance control and

    scanning unit

    piezoelectric tube with electrodes

    Scanning Tunnelling Microscope

  • The evolution of materials 10,000 BC 1000 BC 0 1800 1900s 2000 2010

    stone & wood iron cement steel polymers nanomaterials ?

    Nano adds value by adding a nanomaterial to an existing product.

    Harper, 2005

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Nanomaterials

    Nanoscale in one dimension Thin films, layers and surfaces: computer chips, Organic Light

    Emitting Diodes (organic polymer films).

    Kodak digital camera

    anode

    glass substrate

    2-10 V DC

    hole injection layer

    organic emitters

    electron transport layer

    light output

    metal cathodeOLED

    high brightness and contrast, no backlight, low power

    side-angle

    viewingof LCD

    side-angle

    viewingof OLED

    1650 viewing angle

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Nanomaterials

    uncapped, multi-walled carbon nanotube

    capped, single-walled carbon nanotube

    Nanoscale in two dimensions Carbon nanotubes: lattice of carbon atoms rolled into a

    cylinder; tennis racket frames.

  • Nanotechnology solutions for Victorian and Australian industry Materials Revolution: Nanotubes

    Source: NASA Ames Research Laboratory

    Carbon nanotubes

    Can be metallic or semiconducting

    Superior mechanical properties Nanotubes

    can be functionalized

    Superior electrical and thermal properties

    Excellent field emitter

    Mechanical and electronic properties

    can be tailored

    Courtesy: Dr Peter Binks, Nanotechnology Victoria

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Nanoscale in three dimensions Nanoparticles: zinc oxide used as UV blocking agent in

    sunscreens.

    100 nm

    gold nanoparticles grown in solution 0 m

    2 m

    3 m

    0 nm 75 nm

    150 nm

    gold nanoparticle film on semiconductor base

    Nanomaterials

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Nanoparticles - invisibility

    400 500 600 700 visible region

    wavelength (nanometres)

    gamma rays 1 micron 1 mm 1 metre

    X-rays UV infrared radio waves

    Whats this? Its invisible beer

    0.01 1 100 104 106 108 1010

  • Risk Perception Swiss Reinsurance Company, Zurich, 2004

    Nanotechnology Small matter, many unknowns

    Swiss Re

    Access to target organ through: touching, breathing and swallowing

  • CONSUMER

    AIR

    WATER DIET

    WORKERS TRANSPORT

    discharge/leakage

    STORAGE discharge/leakage

    PRODUCT

    WASTE discharge/leakage

    PRODUCTION Lab/Factory

    discharge/leakage

    Transport/Diffusion?

    Transformation/Degradation?

    Transport/Diffusion?

    Release of fixed nanoparticles/ nanotubes during product lifecycle?

    Potential use of nanoparticles in environmental applications e.g. remediation of polluted groundwater.

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Nanocomposites Formed by integrating inorganic nanoparticles into organic polymers. Benefits include: increased strength; increased chemical resistance; increased electrical conductivity; increased thermal stability; decreased permeability to gases, water

    and hydrocarbons.

    Example Nylon 6 with 3-5% nanoclay: softening temperature increased

    from 600C to 1400C; used for timing belts in cars.

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Top-down manufacturing

    Precision engineering, e.g. high-quality optics Start with a larger piece of material. Etch, cut or grind a nanostructure by removing material.

    Milling, e.g. nanoparticles

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Bottom-up manufacturing

    Self-assembly Atoms or molecules arrange themselves into ordered nanoscale structures, e.g. carbon nanotubes: common in nature, e.g. snowflakes and

    soap bubbles.

    Positional assembly Atoms or molecules are deliberately manipulated one-by-one.

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Why are things different in the nanoworld?

    light emitted from quantum dots

    Quantum effect At the lower end of the nanoscale, space available to electrons is restricted: electronic, optical and magnetic

    properties different from bulk properties.

    Increased reactivity Surface properties predominate and reactivity enhanced: ratio of surface area to volume relatively

    high for nanoparticles. 5 nm radius 50% of atoms on the

    surface

  • www.deakin.edu.au

    Nanoscale in Nature - The Lotus effect

    Nelumbo nucifera

    protruding nubs: 20-40 microns wax crystals: 2-200 nanometres

    Nanotechnology, like any other branch of science, is primarily concerned with understanding how nature works.

    Harper, 2003

  • hydrophobic smooth surface

    super-hydrophobic rough surface

    Lotus leaf

  • Nanotechnology and textiles

    The textiles industry is likely to be one of the early adopters of nanotechnology products and processes.

    Nanotechnology Victoria

    Nanoparticles have a range of potential applications: in the short term in new cosmetics, textiles and paints.

    The Royal Society and The Royal Academy of Engineering, 2004

  • Nanotechnologies in

    fibres & textiles

    1. Incorporating membranes with nanoscale features into garment structures.

    2. Bonding polymeric films with nanoscale features to the fibre surface.

    3. Producing fibres containing nanoparticles nanocomposite fibres.

    4. Electrospinning of nanofibres.

  • 200 nm

    Gore-Tex membrane inner

    fabric

    wind rain

    body vapour

    oute

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