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By Loh Zheng Yi 3I316. Nanotechnology and Applications. What are the pictures about?. Watch the Video…. http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3QLLc-q07Q This video depicts many uses of nanotechnology in electronics and medicine. It also shows a brief overview of the history of nanogold. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Nanotechnology and Applications

Nanotechnology and ApplicationsBy Loh Zheng Yi 3I316

What are the pictures about?

Watch the Videohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3QLLc-q07QThis video depicts many uses of nanotechnology in electronics and medicine. It also shows a brief overview of the history of nanogoldWhat is nanotechnology?Study and application of control of matter on an atomic scale (10^-9)Applications of nanotechnologyMedicineNanomaterialsMolecular Self AssemblyNanoelectronics

NanomaterialsCharacteristicsVastly increased surface area to volume ratioAltered electronic propertiesUniformity in packing of molecules/atomsTypesFullerenesNanotubesNanoparticlesNanomaterialsDid you know? In the nanoworld,Copper becomes transparentAluminum becomes combustibleGold can be used as a catalystSilicon becomes a conductorFerroelectric materials are able to switch their magnetization energy(That means you cant made a memory chip in the nanoscale using conventional methods!)Zinc Oxide can block UV light efficiently (currently used in sunscreen)

FullerenesA molecule that is fully composed of carbonFirst fullerene to be discovered C60 fullereneVarious typesBuckyballsNanotubesMegatubesPolymers

BuckyballsSpherical carbon allotropesCan also be made with elements such as Boron and SiliconApplicationsCan act as aromaticsCan act as superconductors under specific conditions

NanotubesWatch the video on the synthesis of carbon nanotubes and their applications http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikYhyjPjKBs

NanotubesAllotropes of carbon such that they resemble a tubeCharacteristicsLength to diameter ratios of up to 132 000 000: 1Extreme strengthEfficient thermal conductors along the tube (up to 10 times as much as metals) but insulators perpendicular to the tube lengthElectrical conductorsLength of up to 18.5cmMore than 80times the tensile strength of stainless steelExperiments have created nanotubes harder than diamond

Applications of nanotubesNanomotorUsing nanotubes encased within another nanotubeNanoelectrical systemsA sheet of nanotubes can act as loudspeakers that amplify sound through thermoacousticityNanotubes can be used for flexible displays and touchscreens

Application of nanotubesSolar cellsUses carbon nanotube complexes of buckyballs and nanotubesBuckyballs can trap electrons when excited with light energyNanotubes can then act as wires to transmit the electrons

NanoparticlesSmall clusters of molecules/atoms that behave as a whole unitUniform packingConsists of colloidsSolid particles small enough to exhibit brownian motion

NanoparticlesHistory (Yes, this seemingly modern science does have a history)In the Middle ages and the Renaissance (14th to 17th century), people found a way to make pottery glisterThis is done by the glazing of a metallic film of silver and copper nanoparticles onto the clay

Colloidal GoldAlso known as NanogoldSuspension of gold nanoparticles in a fluidFormed by the reduction of chloroauric acidPropertiesColour ranges from yellow to red depending on size of particlesDue to the ability of gold nanoparticles to confine electrons and produce quantum effectsColloidal gold melts near 300C unlike bulk gold (1064C)Gold is now a semiconductorGold is no longer inert

Application of NanogoldTechnological PurposesSynthesis of extremely fine wiresSynthesis of semi conductors for computersSynthesis of touch sensitive screens and advanced data storageSynthesis of efficient chemical catalystsNanogold can catalyze the conversion of Carbon Monoxide into Carbon Dioxide with 100% efficiencyNanogold can be used to make firefighting masks that protect against CO poisoning for several hoursNanogold can purify water and detect contaminationApplication of NanogoldMedicinal purposesGold Nanoparticles can be attached to antibodies to be used as a beacon which can then be detected by equipment (e.g. dark field imaging) to identify cancer cellsThe presence of nanogold in cancer cells also make the cells vulnerable to light energy that would cause nanogold to heat up the cell until it diesThe use of gold nanorods, coupled with IR laser light, can be used to detect tumors deep within the skin

NanomedicineThe utilization of nanotechnology to help overcome current medicinal technology limitsApplications includeAdvanced drug delivery methodsNew therapiesNeuroelectronic interfaces and nanoelectronic based sensorsCell repair machinese?Drug DeliveryFocuses on maximizing the effect of drugs (so that they do not end up in non useful place)Nanoparticles can be taken up by cells (unlike bulk materials) because of their sizeThis can cause drugs to be distributed to the desired cells via complex delivery mechanismsThis can also eliminate problems such as death of normal cells caused by poor biodistributionNanoparticles as seekersSeveral functional groups can be attached to a nanoparticleAs tumors lack an effective drainage system, nanoparticles can accumulate easily at such cites.Some nanoparticles such as cadmium selenide glow when exposed to UV rays, thus revealing the cancer cells.Neuroelectronic InterfaceSynthesis of a molecular structure that will allow the neural impulses to be detectedThrough nanotechnology, computers may be able to be used to control the neural network and treat diseases that affects the neural networkMany limitations due to possible malfunctions and electrical disruptionNanoparticles as seekers

ReferencesLehigh University (2004, April 29). Nanogold Does Not Glitter, But Its Future Looks Bright. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 21, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2004/04/040428062059.htmChang Qing, Sun (2008, June 27). Nanogold chemistry. SciTopics. Retrieved August 21, 2010, from http://www.scitopics.com/Nanogold_chemistry.htmlhttp://www.mi2g.com/cgi/mi2g/frameset.php?pageid=http%3A//www.mi2g.com/cgi/mi2g/press/110210.phphttp://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=15631.phphttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanomedicinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_nanotubehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanogoldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fullerenehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanomaterialshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanoparticle

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