Name: Date: Section 7-1: The Revolution 7 Section...Section 7-1: The Revolution Begins ... Capture of Fort Ticonderoga important because it was ... disadvantages did the colonists have at the Battle of Bunker Hill ...

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<ul><li><p>Name: Date: </p><p>Chapter 7 Section Review Packet </p><p>Section 7-1: The Revolution Begins Match the following terms with the correct answer: 1. First Continental Congress_____ 2. Minutemen_____ 3. Thomas Gage_____ 4. Lexington and Concord_____ 5. Shot Heard Round the World _____ 6. Redcoats_____ 7. Second Continental Congress_____ 8. Continental Army_____ 9. George Washington_____ 10. Olive Branch Petition_____ 11. Siege_____ 12. Fort Ticonderoga_____ 13. Battle of Bunker Hill_____</p><p>a. Location of stored weapons and ammunition used by colonial militia in New England b. Army created by the Continental Congress to defend the colonies against the British c. British general tasked with taking away the weapons and ammunition of the militia d. Members of the militia that could be ready to fight at a moments notice e. Colonists nickname for British soldiers f. Nickname given to the first shot of the American Revolution g. Chosen as commander of the Continental Army h. Term that means to surround a city or fort i. A petition sent to King George III reasserting the colonies desire for peace, not war j. British fort captured by Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allan k. Meeting of delegates from various colonies that met in September of 1774 to discuss the crisis with Britain l. Second meeting of delegates to discuss how to proceed and react to the fighting with Britain m. First major battle of the American Revolution which showed Americans could hold their own against the British</p><p> Thoroughly answer the following questions: 14. (a) What was the purpose of the First Continental Congress? (b) What was its end result? (a) To decide how to respond to the unfair taxation policies and various violations of the colonists rights (b) Result was to continue boycotting British goods and to agree to meet again in a years time; prepare the colonial militias for potential action 15. Describe the events surrounding Lexington and Concord. (a) Why did the British march there? (b) Who famously rode out to warn the colonists of the British approach? (c) How did the colonists respond and why? (d) What was the end result of this skirmish/battle? (a) British marched on Concord to seize the Massachusetts colonial militias weapons and ammunition (b) Paul Revere and William Dawes are the two most famous riders that rode out to warn the colonists of the British approach; also lit lanterns in Bostons Old North Church (one lantern if the British were coming by land, two lanterns if the British were coming by sea) (c) Colonial militia comprised of minutemen quickly gathered their gear and assembled at Lexington, where they met the approaching British troops; first shots of the Revolution fired here (Shot heard round the world); retreated to Concord where they faced the British again (d) Colonists managed to get to the supplies before the British, who retreated back to Boston, being chased and fired upon by the militiamen 16. (a) What was the purpose of the Second Continental Congress? (b) What decisions were made there? (c) What was its end result? (a) To consider further action against the British as their demands were not being met (b) Decision was made to form the Continental Army with George Washington as its commanding general </p></li><li><p>(c) Also decided to send the Olive Branch Petition to King George III, hoping that the conflict could be resolved peacefully 17. (a) What was the Olive Branch Petition? (b) Why was it named this? (c) Was it accepted or rejected by King George III? (a) Olive Branch Petition was a document detailing the colonists complaints and suggested that the situation could be peacefully resolved (b) Name comes from the olive branch, a symbol of peace dating back to ancient times (c) The petition was rejected by King George III 18. (a) Why was the capture of Fort Ticonderoga important? (b) What important supplies did the British have stored there and (c) how were they used later on? (a) Capture of Fort Ticonderoga important because it was an important strategic fort that could allow the Americans to invade Canada (b) Americans were also able to capture weapons and supplies, especially cannons that could be used in the siege of Boston by George Washington (c) Cannons were placed above Boston on Dorchester Heights, and British were forced to abandon Boston 19. What (a) advantages and (b) disadvantages did the colonists have at the Battle of Bunker Hill? (c) Who won this battle? (d) Which side suffered more casualties? (e) Finally, what did this battle show about the Americans ability to fight the British? (a) Advantages: Americans held the high ground on top of two hills: Breeds Hill and Bunker Hill (high ground easier to defend; Americans were passionate about fighting the British, had high morale (b) Disadvantages: Lack of military experience and leadership, low on weapons, ammunition, and supplies; outnumbered by the British (c) British technically won because they Americans forced to retreat due to low ammunition and supplies (d) British suffered more casualties, but were able to win the battle because of superior manpower (e) Even though the battle was a loss, it showed the Americans could fight the British and possibly win </p></li><li><p>Section 7-2: Declaring Independence Match the following terms to the correct definition: 20. Common Sense_____ 21. Thomas Paine_____ 22. Thomas Jefferson_____ 23. Declaration of Independence_____ 24. Unalienable rights_____ 25. Patriots_____ 26. Loyalists_____ 27. Abigail Adams_____</p><p>a. Document that enumerated natural rights, grievances against King George III, and declared the United States to be an independent country b. Primary author of the Declaration of Independence c. Rights that people are natural born with, that cannot be taken away d. Those people in the colonies who still gave allegiance to Great Britain e. Wife of Founding Father John Adams f. Pamphlet that was intended to show why it made sense for the United States to declare its independence g. Author of Common Sense h. Colonists who believed in, and fought for, American independence</p><p> Thoroughly answer the following questions: 28. (a) What were the main points of the pamphlet Common Sense? (b) What audience was it intended for? (c) How was it written to accomplish this goal? (a) Points in Common Sense included: British were in violation of the colonists basic rights, Americans were culturally and politically different than the British, made little sense to be ruled by a King thousands of miles away who had never set foot in America (b) Intended to be read by the common American citizen; Common Sense convinced many Americans that the Revolution was necessary (c) Written in common language as opposed to flowery form of writing intended for upper class and wealthy 29. (a) Name the members of the committee charged with writing the Declaration of Independence. (b) What were the three main purposes of the Declaration? (c) When was the Declaration approved? (a) Primary authors included Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams; Jefferson was to be the primary author (b) Three main points: 1) Human beings have basic, natural rights that, when violated, people have the right to overthrow a tyrant and replace him with a government that will respect their rights and rule justly, 2) Listed those rights that had been violated by King George III and Parliament, and 3) as a result of these violations, the colonies had no choice but to declare their independence (c) Declaration approved on July 2, announced on July 4, 1776 by the Continental Congress 30. (a) What are unalienable rights (give examples with your explanation)? (b) What philosophical movement inspired the idea of such rights? (a) Unalienable rights are those rights that you are born with and cannot be taken away (alienated) (b) Inspired by the thinkers of the Enlightenment period in Europe and America, who were influenced by the Scientific Revolution and the thinkers of ancient Greece and Rome 31. What are some of the grievances (complaints) against King George III listed in the Declaration of Independence? (a) Taxation without representation; the suspension of trial by jury in various cases; various acts of Parliament including the Intolerable Acts; the occupation of the colonies by British troops and forcing the colonists to quarter them in their homes; violation of their trading rights </p></li><li><p> 32. (a) What two primary groups of people were largely ignored by the Declaration of Independence? (b) How did the Declaration cause people to question the institution of slavery? (a) Two groups ignored by the Declaration of Independence were women and slaves (b) All men are created equal was seen to mean free, white men; Authors of the Declaration wanted to avoid the issue of slavery to avoid causing division within the colonies and the Continental Congress; The Declarations emphasis on liberty, freedom, and rights did cause some to seriously question the institution of slavery as incompatible with the values upon which the country was achieving its independence Section 7-3: Dark Hours for the Revolution Match the following terms with the correct answer: 33. Mercenaries_____ 34. Lord Dunmores Proclamation_____ 35. Thayendanegea_____ 36. Molly Pitcher_____ 37. William Howe_____</p><p>a. Foreign soldiers hired to fight for the British b. Native American chief that supported the British during the Revolution c. Announcement stating that any slave that fought on behalf of the British would be freed d. British general that defeated the Americans in New York e. Woman who took her wounded husbands place in battle, helping load cannons</p><p> Thoroughly answer the following questions: 38. Describe the (a) strengths and (b) weaknesses of the British Army in America. Then describe the (c) strengths and (d) weaknesses of the Continental (American) Army. (a) British strengths: more manpower, weapons, supplies; were a professional army with veteran soldiers that had combat experience; superior leadership; British also had the worlds largest, most powerful navy (b) British weaknesses: fighting in hostile, unfamiliar territory with troops that had no reason to fight other than being ordered to; used to standard, line infantry warfare, unlike the guerilla warfare many would face in America; long supply lines across the Atlantic Ocean (c) American strengths: fighting on home ground; fighting for their homes and country gave them an advantage in morale; familiar with the territory and could use the geography/terrain to their advantage (d) American weaknesses: poorly trained and equipped; no real military experience; lack of supplies such as weapons, ammunition, and proper uniforms/clothing; lack of money; lack of leadership 39. (a) What was the American attitude towards African-Americans serving in the Continental Army? (b) What approach did the British take towards African-Americans? (a) Most Americans opposed having African-Americans serve in the army, especially those in the South where they feared arming Africans or slaves because it might lead to slave rebellion/uprising; the idea of Africans being soldiers contradicted the main reasons why slaves were slaves, i.e. they are incapable of carrying out the duties of a soldier (b) British would offer freedom to any African-American that served in the British army during the Revolution; saw it as a way of hurting the American south economically 40. Describe the role of (a) native Americans and (b) women in the Revolutionary war. (a) Native Americans were allies to both British and Americans during the war; British hoped to use them in order to keep Americans occupied on frontier; Americans hoped to keep them neutral at the very least; natives would be used as militia as well as scouts, spies, etc. </p></li><li><p>(b) Women at home ran households and businesses, tended to farms, plantations, etc.; Produced important supplies for soldiers such as uniforms; Also served as nurses, spies, had duties on battlefield such as runners. Mary Ludwig Hayes, aka Molly Pitcher, brought water to thirsty soldiers on battlefield; some even pretended to be men in order to take part in combat 41. What were some major setbacks for the Americans in the early part of the war? Discuss the (a) American invasion of Canada and (b) the events in Philadelphia and New York. (c) What was the overall state of affairs during the early years of the Revolution? (a) American invasion of Canada was a major disaster; Americans lacked cold weather clothing; many Americans periods of enlistment were almost up so had to attack quickly; lacked cannons and artillery to take a major fortified city such as Quebec (b) British conquered New York City and Philadelphia, two of Americas largest cities (c) Americans lost many early battles; number of men in Army fluctuated badly; high rates of desertion; low morale; lack of supplies and proper leadership </p></li><li><p>Section 7-4: Patriots Gain New Hope Match the following terms with the correct definition: 42. Battle of Trenton_____ 43. Battle of Princeton_____ 44. John Burgoyne_____ 45. Battle of Brandywine Creek_____ 46. Battle of Saratoga_____ 47. Bernardo de Galvez_____ 48. Marquis de Lafayette_____ 49. Tadeusz Kosiuszko_____ 50. Valley Forge_____ 51. Friedrich von Steuben_____ 52. John Paul Jones_____ 53. Bonhomme Richard_____</p><p>a. German army officer who taught American soldiers basic military skills at Valley Forge b. Battle which occurred early on the morning of December 26, 1776 and resulted in an American victory c. French aristocrat who served as an officer in the Continental Army and aided the Americans with his own money d. Battle in New York which resulted in a major American victory; showed that the British could be beaten e. British general who surrendered at Saratoga f. Polish military officer who brought engineering skills to the Continental Army g. Place where George Washington chose to rest his army during the winter of 1777-1778 h. Ship famous for its victory over the British ship Serapis in 1779 i. Governor of Spanish Louisiana who was a key ally to the Patriots j. British victory in September of 1777 in which the Americans lost almost twice as many men as the British k. Hard-fought battle which resulted in an American victory in New Jersey</p><p> Thoroughly answer the following questions: 54. Describe the American victories at the Battles of (a) Trenton and (b) Princeton. What strategies did Washington use to win these battles? (c) Who else, besides the British, were the Americans fighting in this battle? (a) Washington defeated Hessian troops at Trenton by launching a surprise attack on Christmas Night, 1776; crossed the Delaware River under cover of darkness and took Hessians by surprise. (b) At Princeton, lit campfires to fool the British into thinking the Continental Army was camped for the night; Then led the army under the cover of darkness around behind the B...</p></li></ul>

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