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A. USDA FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID

The Food Guide Pyramid is designed to help us follow most of the Dietary Guidesline for Americans. Developed by the USDA, it is a guide to the amounts and kinds of foods we should eat daily to maintain health and to reduce the risk of developing diet-related diseases.

B. MY PYRAMID

Anatomy of MyPyramidOne size doesn't fit all USDA's new MyPyramid symbolizes a personalized approach to healthy eating and physical activity. The symbol has been designed to be simple. It has been developed to remind consumers to make healthy food choices and to be active every day. The different parts of the symbol are described below. Activity Activity is represented by the steps and the person climbing them, as a reminder of the importance of daily physical activity. Moderation Moderation is represented by the narrowing of each food group from bottom to top. The wider base stands for foods with little or no solid fats or added sugars. These should be selected more often. The narrower top area stands for foods containing more added sugars and solid fats. The more active you are, the more of these foods can fit into your diet. Personalization Personalization is shown by the person on the steps, the slogan, and the URL. Find the kinds of amounts of food to eat each day at MyPyramid.gov

Proportionality Proportionality is shown by the different widths of the food group bands. The widths suggest how much food a person should choose from each group. The widths are just a general guide, not exact proportions. Check the Web site for how much is right for you. Variety Variety is symbolized by the 6 color bands representing the 5 food groups of the Pyramid and oils. This illustrates that foods from all groups are needed each day for good health. Gradual Improvement Gradual improvement is encouraged by the slogan. It suggests that individuals can benefit from taking small steps to improve their diet and lifestyle each day.

C. FOOD EXCHANGE LIST

Food Exchange ListFood Exchange List System is a grouping of common foods that have practically the same amount of protein, carbohydrates and fats. Within the group one food item can be exchanged with another provided that specified serving portion is allowed. The exchange lists are intended for planning diabetic diets, therefore the foods included are simple and only those allowed in the diabetic diet list.

Food Exchange ListVegetables contain 25 calories and 5 grams of carbohydrate. One serving equals: CCooked vegetables (carrots, broccoli, zucchini, cabbage, etc.) 1 CRaw vegetables or salad greens CVegetable juice If youre hungry, eat more fresh or steamed vegetables. Fat-Free and Very Low-Fat Milk contain 90 calories per serving. One serving equals: 1 CMilk, fat-free or 1% fat CYogurt, plain nonfat or low-fat 1 CYogurt, artificially sweetened

Food Exchange ListVery Lean Protein choices have 35 calories and 1 gram of fat per serving. One serving equals: 1 ozTurkey breast or chicken breast, skin removed 1 ozFish fillet (flounder, sole, scrod, cod, etc.) 1 ozCanned tuna in water 1 ozShellfish (clams, lobster, scallop, shrimp) CCottage cheese, nonfat or low-fat 2Egg whites CEgg substitute1 ozFat-free cheese CBeans, cooked (black beans, kidney, chick peas or lentils): count as 1 starch/bread and 1 very lean protein

Food Exchange ListFruits contain 15 grams of carbohydrate and 60 calories. One serving equals: 1 smallApple, banana, orange, nectarine1 med.Fresh peach1KiwiGrapefruitMango1 C Fresh berries (strawberries, raspberries, or blueberries)1 C Fresh melon cubes18thHoneydew melon4 oz Unsweetened juice4 tspJelly or jam Lean Protein choices have 55 calories and 23 grams of fat per serving. One serving equals: 1 ozChickendark meat, skin removed1 ozTurkeydark meat, skin removed1 ozSalmon, swordfish, herring1 ozLean beef (flank steak, London broil, tenderloin, roast beef)*1 ozVeal, roast or lean chop*1 ozLamb, roast or lean chop*1 ozPork, tenderloin or fresh ham*1 ozLow-fat cheese (with 3 g or less of fat per ounce)1 ozLow-fat luncheon meats (with 3 g or less of fat per ounce) C4.5% cottage cheese2 med.Sardines* Limit to 12 times per week

Food Exchange ListMedium-Fat Proteins have 75 calories and 5 grams of fat per serving. One serving equals: 1 ozBeef (any prime cut), corned beef, ground beef** 1 ozPork chop 1 Whole egg (medium)**1 ozMozzarella cheese CRicotta cheese 4 oz Tofu (note this is a heart healthy choice)** Choose these very infrequently Starches contain 15 grams of carbohydrate and 80 calories per serving. One serving equals: 1 sliceBread (white, pumpernickel, whole wheat, rye) 2 slicesReduced-calorie or "lite" bread (1 oz)Bagel (varies)English muffinHamburger bun CCold cereal 13 C Rice, brown or white, cooked13 CBarley or couscous, cooked 13 CLegumes (dried beans, peas or lentils), cooked CPasta, cooked CBulgar, cooked C Corn, sweet potato, or green peas 3 oz Baked sweet or white potato ozPretzels3 CPopcorn, hot air popped or microwave (80% light)

Food Exchange ListFats contain 45 calories and 5 grams of fat per serving. Oneserving equals: 1 tsp Oil (vegetable, corn, canola, olive, etc.) 1 tsp Butter 1 tsp Stick margarine 1 tsp Mayonnaise 1 Tbsp Reduced-fat margarine or mayonnaise 1 Tbsp Salad dressing 1 Tbsp Cream cheese 2 Tbsp Lite cream cheese 1/8th Avocado8 largeBlack olives 10 largeStuffed green olives 1 sliceBacon

FOOD LABELS.

F O O D L A B E L

10 NUTRIENTAL GUIDE FOR FILIPINO1. Eat a variety of foods everyday. The human body needs more than 40 different nutrients for good health. No single food can provide all the nutrients in the amounts needed. Eat a variety of foods, to provide all the nutrients required in the proper amount and balance.

infants exclusively from birth to 4-6 months and then, give appropriate foods while continuing breast-feeding.2. Breast-feed Infants and children up to 2 years of age are most vulnerable to malnutrition. Breastfeeding is one of the most effective strategies to improve child survival. Nutritional requirements of an infant can be obtained solely from breast milk for the first 6 months of life. After that time, breast milk must be complemented with appropriate foods, but breast-feeding should be continued for up to 2 years of age or longer. The decision to breast-feed is made by the mother. Nonetheless, the husband and other family members, health workers, neighbors, community organizations, officemates and employers must encourage her to breast-feed her infant.

10 NUTRIENTAL GUIDE FOR FILIPINO3. Maintain

children's normal growth through proper diet and monitor their growth regularly.

An adequate diet for an active child is one that promotes good health and normal growth. A well-nourished child is healthy, strong, and alert, has good disposition, and grows at a normal rate. A poorly nourished child exhibits sluggish if not permanently delayed physical and mental development. In addition, he is lethargic and frequently ill because of low resistance to infection. Over nutrition on the other hand, may lead to obesity that may cause physical and emotional problems in childhood and later in life. 4. Consume fish, lean meat, poultry or dried beans. To improve the Filipino diet, not only should the total quantity of food be increased but the quality of the diet should also be improved by including animal products of substitutes. Including fish, lean meat, poultry, or dried beans in the daily meals will not only enhance the protein quality if the diet but also supply highly absorbable iron, preformed vitamin A and zinc. Fish, lean meat, poultry without skin, and dried beans, in contrast to fatty meats, are low in saturated fats, which are linked to heart disease.

10 NUTRIENTAL GUIDE FOR FILIPINO5. Eat

more vegetables, fruits and root crops.

In general, most people do not eat enough vegetables, fruits and root crops. Results of food consumption surveys conducted by the FNRI show that the average consumption of green leafy vegetables, vitamin C-rich fruits and root crops are low in the Filipino diet. The consumption of more vegetables, fruits and root crops is encouraged to help correct the micronutrient deficiencies consistently noted in national nutrition surveys. Eating root crops will add dietary energy to the meal.

6. Eat

foods cooked in edible/cooking oil daily.

In general, Filipinos use very little oil in their cooking. Boiling is the most common method of food preparation. Hence, the total fat and oil consumption in a Filipino diet is low. Fats and oils are concentrated sources of energy. A low fat and oil consumption results in a diet low in energy value, contributing to chronic energy deficiency. Fats and oils are also essential for absorption and utilization of fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin A. A low fat intake may be one of the causes of vitamin A deficiency among Filipinos. To ensure adequate fat intake, Filipinos should be encouraged to stir-fry foods in vegetable oil or to add fats and oils whenever possible in food preparation. This will guard against chronic energy deficiency and help to lower the risk of vitamin A deficiency. The excessive use of saturated fats and oils, however, may increase the risk of heart disease. The proper choice of fats and oils therefore is essential.

10 NUTRIENTAL GUIDE FOR FILIPINO7. Consume milk, milk products and other calcium-rich foods such as small fish and dark green leafy vegetables everyday.Nutrition surveys indicate a consistent failure of Filipinos to meet dietary recommendations for calcium. An adequate amount of calcium in the diet starting from childhood all through adulthood will help prevent osteoporosis in later life. Milk and milk products provide highly absorbable calcium besides being good sources of protein, vitamin A and other nutrients. Milk and other