Music in Christian Worship
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<p>Readings Begbie(2007).ResoundingTruth. Readcompletetext. Cherry(2010).TheWorshipArchitect. Chapter10(pp.151178) Westermeyer(1998).TeDeum. Readcompletetext. WilsonDickson(1992).TheStoryofChristianMusic.Read completetext.</p> <p>MusicinChristianWorship Objectives:1. 2. 3. 4. Brieflyreviewthebiblicalteachingontheuseofmusic. OutlinethemajordevelopmentsinthehistoryofwesternChristianmusic. SurveythedominantuseofsingingandthehumanvoiceinChristianworship. Outlinetheninemainstylesofmusicusedthroughoutthechurchtoday.</p> <p>Outcomes:Theaimofthissessionistoprovidethestudentwithanoverviewofmusicanditsuseintodayschurch constructs.Commencingwithanevangelicalunderstandingofmusic,anditsplacewithinworship,this sessionwillsurveythedevelopmentofwesternChristianmusicandtheuseofthehumanvoiceasthe predominant instrument in Christian music. The session concludes with an overview of the nine main musicalstylesusedthroughoutthewesternchurch.</p> <p>TheArtsintheChurchGodhasgiftedhumanbeingswiththecapacitytocreateandtheabilitytoexpressthemselvesthrough theircreativity.Collectivelyknownasthearts,humanexpressionwhetherbypainting,drama,danceor music, has at times been celebrated in the church while at other points in history (sometimes simultaneously)theartshavebeenmaligned.Thescopeoftheartsisfartoowideforthissessionso the artistic expression of music has been singled out for review; which given its singular breadth can onlybecoveredeversobriefly.MusichasbeentheartformelectedfromamongallotherstogivevoicetoChristianworship,tobejoined tothewordsofthepoetevangelists,andtobeusedbythechurchtoteachandcorrectthesaints.Servant totheverywordofGoditself,musichasbeenthechosenmessengerforconfession,praise,thanksgiving, edification,andproclamation.Christiansmayhavearguedhowtosingorwhattosing,butfewhaveever disputedthatsingingwasthenaturalresponseofthecreaturetothecreator.(Payne,2001,p.800)Page1 MusicinWorship 2012DrDanielK.Robinson</p> <p> ChristianWorshipPC315/515</p> <p>1.</p> <p>BiblicalTeaching</p> <p>DavidsoothesSaul (1Sam16:16;23)</p> <p>Musicholdsanimportantplaceinourworship;andhasdonesothroughout thehistoryofthechurch.Thebibleisrichwithreferencestomusic(itsuse and practice) with the first mention in Gen. 4:21 which records Jubal the musician. Despite this early reference music was not central to biblical worship until the time of King David. While there were indications that Israel already used songs in their worship (Ex. 15:121; Deut.32; Judg. 5; 1Sam. 2:110), other cultures had much more developed musical guilds and worship repertoires. David changed that (Sweetman, 2012a, p. 11). Theorganisationofmusicanditsperformanceisheavilystructuredduring (andafter)Davidsreign.</p> <p>MusicintheOldTestamentJohnSweetman(2012a)outlinesDavidsadministrationofmusicinthetemplerite(p.11): DevelopmentofMusicalGuilds o Davidselected3Leviticalfamiliestobethetemplemusicians o Thesefamiliesweredividedinto24groupsofsingers/instrumentalists. o Therewereapproximately4000musicians,whichmeantabout150pergroup(1Chron.23:5). o Thefamilyheadsresidedinthetempleandwereprobablyresponsibleforthedevelopment ofmusicalmaterialsandsupervisingandcoordinatingtheprogram.Themusicianslivedwith theLevitesamongthepeople. o 288masterteachersweredispersedtotutorpupils(1Chron.25:78). OrganisationofMusicians:ThemusicianswerealldrawnfromthetribeofLeviandhadmany similaritieswiththeotherLevites(1Chron.6:3132;9:33;15;25).They: o Hadaprominentroleintempleservices o Receivedtithesfromthepeople o LivedtogetherinLeviticaltowns o Sharedcommoneducationandstructurei.e.24groups(Neh.7:73;11:13;18,20) o Ledworshipfor2separateweekseachyearatthetemple(decidedbylot) o Cametogetherforthe3galaJewishfestivals(Passover,Weeks,Tabernacles)</p> <p>Thedisadvantageofsupportingsuchalargegroupofprofessionalworshipperswasbalancedagainstthe advantagesofthestructurewhichensuredthatthewholepopulationwasrepresented.As priestmusicians, these performers gave full time to their musical service. They were chosen on the basis of their talent (1 Chron. 15:22) and were thoroughly trained, serving five years of apprenticeship before being admitted to the regular chorus. The Jewish choir was organized under at least three composerconductorsAsaph,Herman,andJeduthun(2Chron.5:12).Thesingingwasaccompaniedby many kinds of instrumentslyres, pipes, harps, trumpets, and cymbalsand was also associated with dance(Ps.150:4).(Hustad,1994b,p.189)</p> <p> Page2 MusicinWorship 2012DrDanielK.Robinson</p> <p> ChristianWorshipPC315/515</p> <p>ThePsalmsAncientJewishworshiphasalwayscombinedthepublicreadingofscripturewithmelodiousvoiceand instrumentation. Donald Hustad (1994b) writes, They were always sung in a fervent cantillation. (Ps. 47:1).Theywereaccompaniedbyinstrumentsinwhatisbelievedtohavebeenasortofheterophony,in which the instruments provided embellishments of the vocal melody (p. 189). Hustad goes onto list threemaintypesofinstrumentsusedbytheHebrewpeople(p.189): String: kinnor (lyre,related to the Greeks kithara) andnebhel (harp with up to tenstrings,sometimescalledpsalteryinkjv). Wind:shophar(aramshorn),halil(adoublereed,liketheoboe),hazozerah(ametal trumpet),andugabh(averticalflute,usedmainlyinsecularmusic). Percussion:toph(tambourine,orhanddrum),zelzelim(cymbals),andmenaanim(a sistrum;picturedright).</p> <p>The main body of songs contained within the bible are collectively known as the Psalms. Andrew WilsonDickson (1992) writes in The Story of Christian Music, The book of all 150 psalmswascompiledoveralongperiod,itspresentformbeingestablishedwellaftertheexileandthe rebuildingofthetemple(p.20).Hegoesontostate, Someofthetitles,suchasapsalmofAsaphorofthesonsofKorah,indicatetherepertoireof a particular hereditary guild of musicians; others indicate the occasion on which the psalms wereused,stillothersgivingthenameofthemelodicformulausedtoaccompanythem.(p.20) ThePsalmscanbeorganisedintothreegroupsofworshipexpression(Hustad,1994b,p.190): Praise o PraisetheLord! o ForitisgoodtosingpraisestoourGod;forheisgracious,andasongofpraiseisseemly. (Ps.147:1) Petition o Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, thou who leadest Joseph like a flock! Thou who art enthroneduponthecherubim,shineforthbeforeEphraimandBenjaminandManasseh! Stirupthymight,andcometosaveus!(Ps.80:12) Thanksgiving o IlovetheLord,becausehehasheardmyvoiceandmysupplications.(Ps.116:1) GodcommandsbothinstrumentalandvocalpraiseinScripture.Psalm150sayswereto praisetheLordwithhorns,cymbals,andstrings.OverfiftytimesinthebookofPsalms weretoldtosingGodspraise.Psalm47isparticularlyclear:SingpraisestoGod,sing praises!SingpraisestoourKing,singpraises!(v.6)(Kauflin,2008,p.98)</p> <p> Page3 MusicinWorship 2012DrDanielK.Robinson</p> <p> ChristianWorshipPC315/515</p> <p>MusicintheNewTestamentDespite the scant mention of music throughout the New Testament, we can draw a range of observationsastomusicsuseandpractice;bothintheJewishSynagogueandtheearlychurch.ThetraditionsofthesynagoguecontinuedtobeabsorbedintoChristianworshipforsometime,inspite ofthepersecutionsofAD44andtheCouncilofJerusalem,whichinAD49ruledthatpaganconvertsto ChristianityneednotkeeptheLawofMoses.Cantors,trainedtoleadthesinginginthesynagogueand then converted to the Christian faith, continued to put their skills to use in their new church. (Wilson Dickson,1992,p.25)</p> <p>Synagogueworshipcentredontheceremonialreadingofthescriptures(Torahandtheprophets);and wasgenerallyfollowedbyahomily.Whileitisnotknownwhenmusiccameintosynagogueworship,it has been suggested that certain Levitical singers may have continued to practicetheir art inthe lay orientated gathering (Hustad, 1994a, p. 192). We can observe musics intended use threaded throughoutthecomponentsofsynagogueworshipwhichDonaldHustad(1994a,p.192)listsas: ScriptureReadings(Torah;theProphets) Homily,followedbydiscussion Psalmody TheKedusha,Holy,Holy,Holy,(Isa.6:3) Prayers (The Yotzer and the Ahabah, emphasizing the creative acts of God and his love for his people, endingwiththeShemaHear,OIsrael;theLordourGodisoneLord,etc.,adeclarationoffaithanda gladbenediction,fromDeut.6:49,11:1321;Numbers15:3741) The Eighteen Benedictions (expressions of praise, petitions for material and spiritual blessings, and intercessionsformanypeople,concludedwithaunitedamen).</p> <p>ItisnotpossibletodrawadetailedstructurefromtheNewTestamentwritings,butmostscholarsagree that there was a natural borrowing of structure from the Jewish synagogue. Sweetman (2012b) identifies ten elements that were contained in the more spontaneous structure of early Christian churchworship(pp.56):1. 2. 3. 4. Prayer:thehomemeetingsinvolvedprayer(Acts16:15;21:8). Praise:ThePsalterwasprobablythehymnbook,butChristologicalhymnsarealsoused(Phil.2:611). ScriptureReading:itislikelythattheOTwasreadaloudaswellasPaulsepistles(1Thess.5:27). Preaching/Teaching: The ministry of the word of God (Acts 6:2) also included a teaching element. InstructingChristiansinsounddoctrinewasessential(1Tim.4:1113). 5. LordsSupper:ThecelebrationoftheLordsSupperdevelopedfromamealtoamoreformalact(1Cor. 11:1734). 6. Baptism:JesusinstructedhisdisciplestoGoandmakedisciples,baptisingthem(Matt28:19). 7. Offering:Bringinganofferingwasanimportantpartofworship(1Cor.16:14). 8. ConfessionofSin:Inherenttobaptism,1John1:89mayindicateconfessionasanessentialelement. 9. HolySpiritaction:Somespiritualgiftsweremeantforuseinthepublicmeetingforthebenefitofother believers(1Cor.1214). 10. Creeds:Itislikelythattheearlychurchsetoutsomestatementsoffoundationaltheologyforworship. Page4 MusicinWorship 2012DrDanielK.Robinson</p> <p> ChristianWorshipPC315/515</p> <p>2.</p> <p>AnOverviewoftheHistoryofChristianMusic</p> <p>(WilsonDickson,1992)</p> <p>The following timeline, A Brief Overview of the History of Christian Music (Leader, 2011), provides a conciseoutline of the development of Christian music from the Old Testament through to relatively recent history. It is important to note that the trajectory of Eastern Orthodox is not represented.WilsonDicksons(1992)TheStoryofChristianMusic(pictured left) does provide the interested reader with an overview of the Eastern Orthodox developments as well as an excellent survey of the African Americancontribution(BlackGospeletc.)whichisalsonotpresentedinthe followingtimeline: </p> <p>OldTestamentEra </p> <p>NewTestamentEra </p> <p>The morning stars sang together to herald creation(Job38:7). Jubal is appointed the father of all such as handletheharpandpipe(Genesis4:21). Davids harp refreshes and restores Saul, so thattheevilspiritwoulddepartfromhim(1 Samuel16:32). KingDavidformsalargechoirwithorchestra for the tabernacle worship (1 Chronicles 15:16). AminstrelplaysasElishadeliversGodsWord (2Kings3:1516). Music fills the house of God with Glory (2 Chronicles5:1314). Singers go out before the army of the Israelites, and the Ammonites and Moabites aredestroyed(2Chronicles20:21,22). Asongofpraisewillcausemanytosee,fear andtrusttheLord(Psalm40:13). The Lord is praised with trumpet, harp, lyre, timbrel, stringed instruments, pipe, cymbals, anddancing(Psalm150:36). Musicians are rejected by God for lack of righteousness(Amos5:23).</p> <p>Mary sings the Magnificat: My soul doth magnifytheLord(Luke1:4655). Jesus sings a hymn with His disciples (Matthew26:30). Believers are exhorted to speak to one another in hymns and spiritual songs to make melody with your heart to the Lord (Ephesians5:19). Paul and Silas sing in jail, the prison is destroyed and many are saved (Acts 16:25 31).</p> <p>EarlyChristianEra</p> <p>90 The Odes of Solomon are written and sung by the early church becoming Christianitys oldest surviving hymnbook, otherthantheBookofPsalms. 112 Pliny writes of Christians gathering at dawntosinghymns. 300 Hilary of Poitiers, inspired by Greek hymns, begins writing hymns in Latin which utilize marching rhythms of Roman Legionnaires. 313 Constantine the Great is converted. Christian worship develops liturgies and rituals. 320Ephriamwriteshymnsfortheliturgy.</p> <p> Page5 MusicinWorship 2012DrDanielK.Robinson</p> <p> ChristianWorshipPC315/515</p> <p>385 John Chrysostom warns of pernicious influenceofsecularmusic,declaringitatthe root of acts of violence and dishonor, wars anddailydeaths. 388 The Laodecian Council bans extra biblicallyricsfromcongregationalsingingand deplores handclapping and the use of instrumentsinworship.</p> <p>TheReformation</p> <p>TheMiddleAges</p> <p>578Womenarebannedfromchurchchoirs. 590 Gregory the Great established ritual church music, resulting in Gregorian chants andplainsong. 1100 Hildegard of Bingen gives concerts in theSpiritwhichareattendedbythousands. 1100 Popular Singing Guilds are formed andhymnsaresunginthecommonlanguage. 1325 Pope John XX2 forbids extravagances in church music and orders plainsong restored. The Church condemns singing in harmony, saying it almost deprives the ears ofthepowertodistinguish. 1360 Reformer John Wycliff declares that sincerity in worship is of more value than form. He declares, Formalism and elaborate servicesmighthindertrueworship. 1360 Lollard Movement is established by John Wycliff. They go forth singing and preachingtheWordtothecommonpeople. 1409 John Huss declares, Church music shouldbebythepeopleandforthepeople. Hewriteshymnsand translates other from Latin. Huss followers become known has The Singing Church and publish the first protestantHymnalin JohnHuss(AD13731415) 1501. </p> <p>1523 Luther stresses the importance of congregational singing. He issues a hymnal and composes hymns himself, often taking tunesfromsecularsources.Luthersaid,The devilhadnorighttoallthegoodtunes. 1540 Anabaptists (radical reformers who stresstheimportanceofmusicinworshipand who actively write hymns) are persecuted by bothCatholicsandProtestants. 1549JohnCalvinwarnsagainstornamental aids to worship and stresses simplicity. He suggests that songs have only one note per syllable. As a result instruments are banned fromchurches. 1560 The popularity of Scottish psalters bringspsalmsingingintohomes,toparties,to dinnersandontothestreets. 1600 Puritans, prompted by Calvin, accept only metrical psalms sung in unison by the congregation. Choirs and church organs are condemned and many instruments are destroyed.</p> <p>TheGreatAwakening</p> <p>1701 Isaac Watts publishesHymns and Spiritual Songs. He is greatly criticized by the religiousestablishmentforworldliness. 1725AmajorrevivalinEuropeandAmerica is marked by an emphasis on singing and praying. 1746 J.S. Bach, writing music for the glory of God, collides with church authorities and is reproved for making curious variation in the chorale and mingling strange tones. Bachgoesovertheheadsofchurchsuperiors byappealingdirectlytosecularauthoritiesso hemaycontinuecomposing. 1788 Charles Wesley publishes more than 4,000 hymns. Why should the devil have all thegoodmusic?heasks.</p> <p> Page6 MusicinWorship 2012DrDanielK.Robinson</p> <p> ChristianWorshipPC315/515</p> <p>17921857 Major revivals sweep the U.S. and British Isles. Charles Finney and others use music as part of a broad, national evangelicalmovement.</p> <p>EvangelicalEra</p> <p>1863 William Booth uses drums and brass bands in his ministry in London slums. The...</p>
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