Music History

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<p>Music</p> <p>By Randy, Kelvin, David, Andrew, AnnieMusic History</p> <p>1</p> <p>What is Music ?an artistic form of auditory communication incorporating instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner.</p> <p>the sounds produced by singers or musical instruments.</p> <p>What is Music ?Formally, Dictionaries and encyclopedias define music as "an artistic form of auditory communication incorporating instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner.It is also defined simply as "the sounds produced by singers or musical instruments.There are a lot of definitions for music and it will take a whole book to explore the subject of music. 2</p> <p>One True Definition of Music !music is universal and yet it is also relative and subjective.</p> <p>If there is one true definition of music it is this; music is universal and yet it is also relative and subjective. What may be music to one may not be so to another.For me music is the singing of the birds, the whistling of a boy as hes walking, the soft humming of the little girl as she quietly plays, the beautiful sounds a pianist produces as he touches the keys of a piano...Take a moment to consider what the meaning of music is for you</p> <p>3</p> <p>Music is the singing of the birds .</p> <p>4</p> <p>the whistling of a boy as hes walking .</p> <p>5</p> <p>the beautiful sounds a pianist produces as he touches the keys of a piano.</p> <p>6</p> <p>Origin of Music (History)Six periods of musicEach period has a particular style of music that greatly contributed to what music is today</p> <p>There are many theories regarding when and where music originated. Many agree that music began even before man existed. there are six periods of music that Historiographers point outAnd each period has a particular style of music that greatly contributed to what music is today. </p> <p>7</p> <p>Origin of Music (History)</p> <p>The coming slides are some resources for you to better understand the history of music. Presentation are arranged chronologically as Timeline and So, today is a great primer to learn more about every stage of music development..8</p> <p>StructureMusic Timeline IntroductionMusic Forms and StylesMusical Instruments</p> <p>We will present for each timeline as this structure.Timeline IntroMusic Forms and StylesMuscal Instruments of defined timeline9</p> <p>Medieval Ages Music Timeline (500-1400)</p> <p>Pic Credit - Replica of the helmet found atSutton Hoo, in the burial of anAnglo-Saxonleader, probablya king, about 620 in theEarly Middle Ages[1]</p> <p>During the Middle Ages or Medieval period, musical notation began as well as the birth of polyphony. There was a remarkable continuity in musical styles categorized into monophonic and polyphonic styles.</p> <p>10</p> <p>Medieval Music Timeline</p> <p>musical notation began as well as the birth of polyphony</p> <p>Early music notation</p> <p>11</p> <p>Monophonic and Polyphonic </p> <p>Remarkable continuity : categorized into monophonic and polyphonic stylesmonophonic means one note at a time while polyphonic two or more different notes at the same time.</p> <p>For example: If one person is singing a tune then this is monophonic .If two or more persons singing the same melody in the same time. This is still monophonic.If two or more persons singing the same melody but in different intervals then this is polyphonic(very simple but polyphonic).Now , if two or more persons singing different melodies that are combined together and being noticeable as one total piece of music then you have the full definition of polyphonic music.</p> <p>Refer (This composing technique was developed most in the Baroque age by composers such as J.S.Bach)There is also the term "homophonic music"which defines the most common possibility for nowdays that a solo melody("monophonic")is being accompanied by an instrument or an ensemble of instruments(a band).Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_monophonic_and_polyphonic_music#ixzz23ybivpzq</p> <p>12</p> <p>Plainchant (Plain Song)a form of medieval church music that involves chantingEmerged around 100 A.DOnly type of music allowed in Christian churches early onit was believed that music should make a listener receptive to spiritual thoughts and reflections</p> <p>At the medieval age, plainchant music style is happened also called plainsong, is a form of medieval church music that involves chanting;Chanting means words that a group of people sing again and againit emerged around 100 A.D. Plainchant doesn't use any instrumental accompaniment, instead, it uses words that are sung. It was the only type of music allowed in Christian churches early on. In Christian tradition, it was believed that music should make a listener receptive to spiritual thoughts and reflections. This was why the melody was kept pure and unaccompanied.</p> <p>FYI It is set to Latin text and sung, either solo or by a choir.</p> <p>13</p> <p>TheIntroit, scripted in neumesin the 14th15th century</p> <p>There was no notation for earlier forms of plainchant. A symbol called "neumes" were used to indicate pitch and syllable phrasing. 14</p> <p>Gregorian Chant</p> <p>It was around the year 600 when Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory 1) wanted to compile all the different types of chants into one collection. This compilation will later be known as Gregorian Chant.Today Gregorian chants are still being sung in Roman Catholic churches. </p> <p>FYI It is set to Latin text and sung, either solo or by a choir.15</p> <p>The Beginning of Polyphony</p> <p>a characteristic of Western music based on plainchantimprovising with parallel melodies, with emphasis on fourth (ex. C to F) and fifth (ex. C to G) intervals</p> <p>Polyphony is a characteristic of Western music.In its early form, polyphony was based on plainchant. It began when singers started improvising with parallel melodies, with emphasis on fourth (ex. C to F) and fifth (ex. C to G) intervals. This marked the start of polyphony wherein several musical lines were combined. As singers continued experimenting with melodies, polyphony became more elaborate and complex.16</p> <p>the start of polyphony wherein several musical lines were combined</p> <p>17</p> <p>As singers continued experimenting with melodies, polyphony became more elaborate and complex</p> <p>Pic Caption : Singing In a Gregorian Chant/Polyphony Choir18</p> <p>The Luteis shaped like a peara short neck, a sound hole carved with a rose patternstrings that varied in numbersearly lute is the peg box which was angled back</p> <p>One of the instruments that was played on Medieval Age is Lute.The lute is shaped like a pear, it has a decorated fingerboard, a short neck, a sound hole carved with a rose pattern and strings that varied in numbers until the 16th century when it achieved its classic form (having 6 courses of strings). A distinct feature of the early lute is the peg box which was angled back. During the 18th century the lute was overtaken by interest on the keyboard, but many composers still preferred the lute. During the 20th century interest on the lute was revived. </p> <p>19</p> <p>RenaissanceMusic Timeline (1400-1600)</p> <p>Renaissance or "rebirth," a period of significant changes in history, including music</p> <p>Renaissance means "rebirth" and in music this period brought about many changes in the way music was created and noticed.I think you all already known about this painting name. Whats it?Yes, Mona Lisa. Painted by the Italian artist, Leonardo da Vinci, and is believed to have been painted between 1503 and 1506.</p> <p>FYI TheMona Lisa(La GiocondaorLa Joconde, orPortrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo[1]) is a half-length portrait of a woman by theItalianartistLeonardo da Vinci, which has been acclaimed as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world."[2]20</p> <p>Humanism in MusicA new philosophy called humanism developed in ItalyIt emphasized that life should be viewed as a preparation for death</p> <p>In Italy during the Renaissance, a new philosophy called "humanism" developed. The emphasis of humanism is on the quality of life on earth, much different from earlier beliefs that life should be viewed as a preparation for death.</p> <p>21</p> <p>Dutch composers and musicians were arranged to teach and perform in Italian courts</p> <p>the invention of printing helped spread these new ideas</p> <p>By this time the influence of the Church on the arts grew weak, composers and their patrons were ready for new artistic ideas. Dutch composers and musicians were arranged to teach and perform in Italian courts and the invention of printing helped spread these new ideas.</p> <p>22</p> <p>Instrumental MusicBy the second half of the 1500s instrumental music began to take shapeThelutewas widely used at that timeeventually mixed instruments were used</p> <p>By the second half of the 1500s instrumental music began to take shape. The instrumental canzone made use of brass instruments; music for keyboard instruments (such as the clavichord,harpsichordand organ) were also written.Thelutewas widely used at that time, both to accompany singing and for instrumental music. At first only instruments of the same family were played together, but eventually mixed instruments were used.</p> <p>23</p> <p>Mix instruments are played</p> <p>24</p> <p>Renaissance Musical InstrumentsThe ShawmThe DulcianThe Trumpet</p> <p>There are three musical instruments that are popular in Renaissance period.The ShawmThe DulcianThe Trumpet25</p> <p>The shawm has a conical bore, only wider</p> <p>It has 7 to 8 finger holes</p> <p>at the end of the bore is a large bell</p> <p>was mostly used in outdoor ceremonial events</p> <p>The shawm is the family of the oboe and as such it too has a conical bore, only wider. </p> <p>It has 7 to 8 fingerholes and at the end of the bore is a large bell. </p> <p>The sound it produces is quite piercing which is why it was mostly used in outdoor ceremonial events. </p> <p>It comes in varying sizes, each having its own sound.</p> <p>26</p> <p>DulcianThe dulcian is a predecessor of theshawmA precursor of thebassoonDulcians are easier to transport than the shawm due to its smaller sizeDulcians produce sound that is less piercing than the shawm</p> <p>The dulcian is a predecessor of theshawmand a precursor of thebassoon. Like the shawm, it has a conical bore. The difference is that a shawm has only one bore while a dulcian has two and it is folded at the bottom. Also, dulcians are easier to transport than the shawm due to its smaller size. Dulcians produce sound that is less piercing than the shawm.</p> <p>27</p> <p>Trumpet The most commonly used is the B flat trumpet There is also the C, D, E flat and piccolo trumpet</p> <p>There are different types of trumpets, the most commonly used is the B flat trumpet. There is also the C, D, E flat and piccolo trumpet (also known as Bach trumpet). There are also trumpet-related instruments such as the cornet, fluegel horn and bugles.</p> <p>28</p> <p>Baroque Music Timeline (1600-1760) "baroque" comes from the Italian word "barocco" which means bizarre (very strange)</p> <p>The word "baroque" comes from the Italian word "barocco" which means bizarre (very strange).This word was first used to describe the style of architecture mainly in Italy during the 17th and 18th century.Later on the word baroque was used to describe the music styles of the 1600s to the 1700s. 29</p> <p>Baroquea time when composers experimented with form, styles and instruments. the development of opera and instrumental musicThe violin was also considered an important musical instrument during this time</p> <p>The Baroque period was a time when composers experimented with form, styles and instruments. This period saw the development of opera and instrumental music. The violin was also considered an important musical instrument during this time.30</p> <p>Venice and the OperaIn 1573, a group of musicians and intellectuals came together to discuss various subjectsThis group of individuals are known as the Florentine Camerata,</p> <p>In 1573, a group of musicians and intellectuals came together to discuss various subjects, especially the desire to revive Greek drama. This group of individuals are known as the Florentine Camerata, they wanted lines to be sung instead of simply being spoken. 31</p> <p>The composerCladuio Monteverdiwas an important contributor, specifically his operaOrfeo; the first opera to gain public welcome</p> <p>From this came theoperawhich existed in Italy around 1600. The composerCladuio Monteverdiwas an important contributor, specifically his operaOrfeo; the first opera to gain public welcome acclaim.</p> <p>At first the opera was only for the upper class or aristocrats but soon even the general public patronized it. Venice became the center of musical activity; in 1637, a public opera house was built there.32</p> <p>Different singing styles where developed for the opera</p> <p>recitative- imitating the pattern and rhythm of speecharia- when a character expresses feelings through a flowing melodybel canto- Italian for "beautiful singing"castrato- During the Baroque period, young boys were castrated before they reached puberty to avoid the deepening of voice. Main roles of the opera were written for the castrato.</p> <p>In Europe, the earliest four stringed violin was used in the first part of the centuryfairly easy to start learningmostly suitable for children 6 years and older</p> <p>Violin</p> <p>In Europe, the earliest four stringed violin was used in the first part of the century.Violins are fairly easy to start learning and is mostly suitable for children 6 years and older. They come in a variety of sizes, from full size to 1/16, depending on the age of the learner. Violins are very popular and in demand so if you become a professional player it wouldn't be hard to join an orchestra or any musical group. Remember to opt for non-electric violins as it is more adequate for beginning students.</p> <p>34</p> <p>ViolaThe first violas are believed to have been made in the 15th centuryDuring the 18th century, it was used to play the part of the cello.an important member of a string ensemble.</p> <p>It is tuned a fifth lower than the violinIts functions as the tenor instrument in a string ensemble.the viola has become an integral part of every string ensemble</p> <p>The first violas are believed to have been made in the 15th century and evolved from the viola de braccio (Italian for "arm viol"). During the 18th century, the viola was used to play the part of the cello. Although not a solo instrument, the viola is an important member of a string ensemble.The viola may look like a violin but it certainly has its' own unique tone. It is tuned a fifth lower than the violin and functions as the tenor instrument in a string ensemble. Violas didn't enjoy immediate prominence when it first emerged. But thanks to great composers such as Mozart. Strauss and Bartk, the viola has become an integral part of every string ensemble.</p> <p>35</p> <p>Double BassThe double bass isn't as popular as other string instruments but is essential in most kinds of ensemble especially jazz bands.</p> <p>In 1516 there was an illustration closely resembling that of a double bass...</p>