Music 219 Graduate Composition Fall, 2009. A couple of important quotations!

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Music 219 Graduate Composition Fall, 2009 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> A couple of important quotations! </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Saint Augustine (345-430) Beauty is the splendor of order. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Igor Stravinsky The more art is controlled, limited, worked over, the more it is free. Poetics of Music (p. 63) </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Paul Hindemith... anyone to whom a tone is more than a note on paper or a key pressed down, anyone who has ever experienced the intervals in singing, especially with others, as manifestations of bodily tension, of the conquest of space, and of the consumption of energy, anyone who has ever tasted the delights of pure intonation by the continual displacement of the comma in string-quartet playing, must come to the conclusion that there can be no such thing as atonal music, in which the existence of tone- relationships is denied. The Craft of Musical Composition. Book I p. 155 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Get to know one another. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> http://arts.ucsc.edu/faculty/cope/music219.html </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Music 219 Graduate Composition Fall, 2009 David Cope, Instructor Meetings: Thurs. 4-7 Music Center 191A Office Hours: Thursday 2-4 Phone: 459-3417 Email: howell@ucsc.eduhowell@ucsc.edu </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Each student will work on five small works Following class assignments. All music must Be presented in either Finale or Sibelius Format and brought in-progress to class on Thumb drives with MIDI instruments assigned. Each student will select one of these works For extension and live performance during the final exam period: Tuesday, December 8: 7:30pm </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 1.Overview/Basics/Chromatic Tonality 2.Presentations 3.Post-Tonality and Set Theory 4.Presentations 5.Serialism and Integration 6.Presentations 7.Gestural/Timbral Composition 8.Presentations 9.Algorithmic Composition 10.Presentations </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Ten important concepts for composers. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 1. Inspiration Well..... </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 2. Overviews Not in cement, but important guides. Sculpture versus painting. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Ligeti http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXh07J JeA28&amp;feature=PlayList&amp;p=9C166AD81 BF9F39F&amp;index=0&amp;playnext=1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXh07J JeA28&amp;feature=PlayList&amp;p=9C166AD81 BF9F39F&amp;index=0&amp;playnext=1 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 3. Titles Before you begin </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 4. Compose every day Even a little is better than none. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 5. Sketching Beethovens sketchbooks Dont use computer notation programs as you compose!!!! </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 6. Listening Joonas Kokkonen Lepo Sumera Aulis Sallinen Per Norgard Kaija Saariaho Wolfgang Rihm Shulamit Ran (Ligeti, Xenakis, Berio, Messiaen, Harbison, Chavez, Tower, Rautavaara, Takemitsu, Ung, Sciarrino, Lewis, Murail, etc.) </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 7. Real/imagined time. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 8. On the wall (1 side) Stravinsky Debussy Afterlife </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 9. No naked notes </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 10. Occams Razor. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Tonality Tonality usually means notes sounding primarily according to a given scale Major scales consist of stepwise intervals Major scale: M2 M2 m2 M2 M2 M2 m2 Natural minor scale M2 m2 M2 M2 m2 M2 M2 Notes not in scale called chromatic </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Key Keys are defined by scales and can be centered around any one of 12 starting notes To create the proper intervallic content some keys must have sharped and flatted notes Key signatures make these easier to read </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Motives Motives are groups of 3 to 7 notes that have some distinctive property (pitch, rhythm, etc.) Motives are varied in many ways (transposition, inversion, extrapolation, etc.) Motives help identify longer melodic lines </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Notes sounding together Are called harmony if they move together Are called polyphony or counterpoint if moving offset Fugues and canons are examples of polyphony </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Harmony Harmony has function (syntax and semantics) Harmonic syntax means what can follow what Harmonic semantics means what constitutes the harmony itself </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Harmonic syntax and semantics In tonal music, some harmonies can follow other harmonics but not others We use Roman numerals in indicate semantics as in a major scale: I, IV, and V indicate Tonic, Subdominant, and Dominant harmonic called primary functions ii (supertonic), iii (mediant), vi (submediant), and vii (leading-tone), called secondary functions </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Harmonic syntax I can be followed by anything V is best followed by I (authentic) or vi (deceptive) but never IV IV can be followed by V (mostly) and I ii belongs to the IV family, iii the I family, vi the I family, and vii the V family interchangeably. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Harmonic syntax I means home base IV means moving toward V (pre- dominant) V means needs to go home </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Phrases Music consists of phrases usually as long as a human breath (based on past on singing) Phrases end in cadences Cadences usually end in I (authentic), V, (half), or V-vi (deceptive) Phrases usually come in pairs in tonal music as in (cadences V and then I - question/answer. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Modulation Modulation means to subtly change keys for variety Best key changes mean to move from a key 1 sharp or 1 flat more of less in key signature. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Periods Phrases group into periods consisting usually of two matching Q and A phrases Periods can repeat, repeat with variation, or contrast </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Sections Sections consist of two or more periods Sections can consist of contrasting or similar periods </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Form Form delineates the material of a work or movement of music Form is usually described by u.c. letters in alphabetical order ABA form (called ternary) indicates one musical idea (section A) followed by a contrasting musical idea (section B) followed by a return of section A </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Structure Structure is NOT form Structure indicates relative importance of musical material (hierarchy) Structure deletes less important musica material in order to highlight the important musical material </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Example </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Chromaticism in Tonal Music Secondary dominants and L.T.7s Borrowed Notes and Chords Neapolitan Chords Augmented Sixth Chords Regions Simple Modulations Far-Related Modulations </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Chromatic Mediants Mediants and Submediants with chromatic alterations Like I, V, and IV, mirror one another around the Tonic Typically have common tones with previous and/or following chords </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Chromatic Non-Harmonic Tones Passing Neighboring Anticipations Suspensions Delayed resolutions </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Tristan Sample </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Some More </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Do I Dare? </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Composers? Name ten composers whose music could be described as highly chromatic tonal but not post-tonal. Name ten more composers as above but who are presently alive. </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Compose Can we compose some examples quickly? </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Great music is music that: Sells the most? Performed the most? Listened to the most? Talked about the most? Differing arrangements the most? Quoted the most? Lasts the longest? </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> If so The best restaurant would be Macdonalds The best film would be Titanic The best author would be Stephen King The best hotel would Best Western The best music would be the Star Spangled Banner </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Then what is it? Best: music that does the most with the least Worst: music that does the least with the most Or Best: music that gets better the more you listen to it Worst: music that you listen to once. </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Best music is like an onion Keep peeling off the layers and continue to discover something new. </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Personal taste There is no such thing as good music. There is no such thing as bad music. There is only music you like or dont like. </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Beginnings </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Basic Principle Get their attention But Dont give the ship away </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Parallels Novels Film Relationships Games Striptease </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Music Soft and foreboding (mysterious) Soft and lyrical (classical) Loud and threatening Loud and triumphant Fast and compulsive Fast and jubilant Medium anything </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Endings </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Slowing down Melody with longer and longer note values Tempo slowing Replace shorter values with longer ones </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Speeding up Melody with shorter and shorter note values Tempo accelerating Replace longer values with shorter ones </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Hold on Hold a note or chord until unbearable </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Dynamics Get louder and louder until... Get softer and softer until... </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Repeat Repeat a note, chord, rhythm until... </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Pitch Get higher and higher until.... Get lower and lower until.... </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Cadence Home base Strongest cadence so far </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Coda New material of cadential merit </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Completion Complete something that has so far been left incomplete Solve a question posed musically </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> Cyclic Palindrome Return to beginning After development, return to main theme unvaried for first time Cyclic form (not exact palindrome) </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> Reverse variation Theme parts presented first and then the theme itself only appears at the end. </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> Stretto Speed up contrapuntal entrances until they finally occur simultaneously Shorten theme until it cannot be shortened any more </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> Variation Vary a theme until it clearly becomes a new theme </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> <li> Pedal tone. Held note under other cadential material </li> <li> Slide 70 </li> <li> Orchestration Save full orchestra texture until the end. Conversely, orchestration to one lone player (Farewell Symphony, Haydn) </li> <li> Slide 71 </li> <li> Focus Focus on a single note, chord, rhythm, or.... </li> <li> Slide 72 </li> <li> Harshest chord possible Yikes! </li> <li> Slide 73 </li> <li> Allusion To the ending of another work. </li> <li> Slide 74 </li> <li> Silence Just before the final cadence use silence and hold it to give the finality what it needs. </li> <li> Slide 75 </li> <li> Fade away When all else fails. </li> <li> Slide 76 </li> <li> Whoops! No ending, no matter how effective in itself, will produce the desired effect if that which goes before it does not lead well to it. Endings in themselves are worthless. </li> </ul>