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<ul><li> 1. Effectiveness and Change in School Organization F. Javier Murillo </li> <li> 2. Contents <ul><li>I. School Effectiveness Research </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Sammons, P., Hillman, J., &amp; Mortimore, P. (1995). Key characteristics of effective schools: a review of school effectiveness research . London: OFSED and Institute of Education. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>II. School Improvement Movement </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Muijs, D., Harris, A., &amp; Chapman, C. (2004). Improving Schools in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas--A Review of Research Evidence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 15(2), 149-175. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>III. Effective School Improvement </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Murillo, F.J. (2004). A comprehensive framework for effective school improvement. Revista Mexicana de Investigacin Educativa, 21, 319-360. </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 3. I. School Efectiveness Research I.1. Definition and characteristics I.2. History I.3. School Effects I.4. Factors of Effectiveness I.5. Models of Effectiveness </li> <li> 4. I.1. School Effectiveness Research <ul><li>Three aims: </li></ul><ul><li>To study of School Effects and their scientific properties </li></ul><ul><li>To identify factors than make an effective school </li></ul><ul><li>To elaborate Models of School Effectiveness </li></ul></li> <li> 5. <ul><li>That in which all and each one of its students obtains an integral development further than might be expected considering theirs socio-economical and cultural background. </li></ul><ul><li>Key characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Value added: considering theirs socio-economical and cultural background. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Equity: all and each one of its students </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Integral development as product </li></ul></li></ul>Effective school is </li> <li> 6. <ul><li>Stage 1. The beginning: Coleman Report and their re-analysis </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>1966 - Coleman Report: School dont matter </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Quantitative research with big samples. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Aim: Estimate the size of school effects. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2. The first researches on effective schools. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Case studies on effective schools: a qualitative approach </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>First results on characteristics of effective schools </li></ul></li></ul>I.2. A brief history </li> <li> 7. <ul><li>Stage 3. Consolidation of School Effectiveness Research </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Macro-research, with big samples </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Quantitative approach </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Link with effective instruction </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Results applied to improving schools </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4. Research of third generation: Multilevel studies. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Use of Multilevel Models. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Qualitative and quantitative approach </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Models of School Effectiveness </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Present and Future: Effective School Improvement? </li></ul></li> <li> 8. I.3. School Effects <ul><li>Size: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Aprox 20% </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>More in Math than in Literacy </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>More in Primary than in Secondary </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Non significant in socio/affective outcomes </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 9. I.4. Factors for Effective Schools <ul><li>The school effectiveness is not the sum of isolated elements. </li></ul><ul><li>The schools that have been able to be effective have a special form to be, to think and to act: an effectiveness culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, so that a deficiency is generated in effectiveness is sufficient that some of the key elements fails seriously. </li></ul><ul><li>The activity factors do not have sense of isolated form, but like a whole, and are only elements for the reflection. </li></ul></li> <li> 10. <ul><li>1. Professional leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Effective leader exercise an indirect but powerful influence on the effectiveness of schools and on the students achievement </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Firm and purposeful </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>A participative approach </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>The leading professional </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 11. <ul><li>2. Shared vision and goals </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Unity of purpose </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Consistency of practice </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Collegiality and collaboration </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 12. <ul><li>3. School climate </li></ul><ul><li>The most important school factor: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>An orderly atmosphere </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>An attractive working environment </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Good relationships </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Absence of violence </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 13. <ul><li>4. Maximisation of learning time </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Avoid absenteeism </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Maximisation of school time </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Maximisation of classroom time </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Classroom management </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 14. <ul><li>5. Purposeful teaching </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Preparation of lessons </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Efficient organization </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Clarity of purpose </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Structured lessons </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Adaptative practice </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Varied activities, participatory and active </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Use of ICT and traditional resources </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 15. <ul><li>6. High expectations </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>High expectation all around </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Communication expectations </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Providing intellectual challenge </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 16. <ul><li>7. Monitoring progress </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Monitoring pupil performance </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Evaluating school performance </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 17. <ul><li>8. Home-school partnership </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Parental involvement in their childrens learning </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 18. <ul><li>9. A learning organisation </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>School-based school development </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 19. I.5. Models of School Effectiveness <ul><li>They leave from a sistemic vision of the school: </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the interaction between the elements and its reciprocal relations </li></ul><ul><li>Multinivel vision: student, classroom, school and context. </li></ul><ul><li>Departure point the learning of the student. </li></ul><ul><li>They gather not only the results of the empirical research, but also hypothetical factors </li></ul></li> <li> 20. An integrated model of school effectiveness (Scheerens, 1992) <ul><li>Teacher experience docente </li></ul><ul><li>Per pupil expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>Parent support </li></ul>INPUT <ul><li>Accievement stimulants from administrative levels </li></ul><ul><li>Develop ob educacional consumerism </li></ul><ul><li> Covariables, sucha as school size, sutudent-body composition, school category, urban/rural </li></ul>CONTEXT <ul><li>School level </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of achievement-oriented policy </li></ul><ul><li>Educational leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus, cooperative planning of teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of school curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Orderly atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluative potential </li></ul><ul><li>A nivel de aula </li></ul><ul><li>Time on task (including homework) </li></ul><ul><li>Structured teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Opportinutuy to learn </li></ul><ul><li>High expectation of pupils progress </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of eveluation and monitoring of pupils progress </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul>PROCESS <ul><li>Student achievement adjusted for: </li></ul><ul><li>Previous achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>SES </li></ul>PRODUCT </li> <li> 21. Contexto Escuela Aula Alumno Calidad : poltica enfocada a la eficacia: poltica de evaluacin; sistema de informacin y apoyo; financiacin segn resultados. Tiempo : orientacin nacional para horarios; supervisin de horarios. Oportunidad : orientacin nacional del currculo. Calidad educativa: reglas y acuerdos sobre la enseanza en el aula; poltica de evaluacin/sistema de evaluacin. Calidad organizativa : poltica de coordinacin, supervisin, profesionalizacin; cultura escolar que lleva a la eficacia. Tiempo : horarios, normas sobre uso del tiempo; entorno tranquilo. Oportunidad : currculo escolar; consenso sobre la misin; normas y acuerdos sobre cmo implementar el currculo escolar. Calidad del currculo : explicitacin de metas y contenidos; organizadores previos; evaluacin; enseanza correctiva. Proceds. agrupacin : Mastery Learning; agrupacin por capacidades... Comportamientos del profesor : clima ordenado; deberes; altas expectativas; metas claras; estructuracin del contenido; claridad de presentacin; ejercicios; evaluacin; enseanza correctiva. Tiempo y oportunidades para aprender Coherencia Constancia Supervisin Coherencia Cohesin Constancia Supervisin Coherencia Destrezas bsicas Destrezas de orden superior Destrezas metacognitivas Tiempo tarea Oportunidades utilizadas Motivacin Aptitudes Antecedentes sociales COMPONENTES DE CALIDAD, TIEMPO Y OPORTUNIDAD NIVELES Creemers (1994) Criterios formales para la eficacia </li> <li> 22. Model for School effectiveness (Murillo, 2008) Resources Family engagement Monitonig and evaluation Professional development Instruction Climate Leadership Sense of community Student AULA School CONTEXT </li> <li> 23. School Improvement <ul><li>Concept and features </li></ul><ul><li>Factors of change </li></ul><ul><li>The process of change </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for change </li></ul></li> <li> 24. School Improvement is <ul><li>Planned and systematic a change, coordinated and assumed by the school that it aim increase the quality of the institution by means of a modification of the teaching and learning processes and its organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Focus in the school </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>There is a systematic vision for the change </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>It implies all the school community. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>It pretend to modify so much the of teaching and learning education processes and learning like the school organization. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Its final aim is to increase the quality of the school and the teachers </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 25. <ul><li>1. Antecedents: decade of the pedagogical optimism </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to the impelled reforms of curricular and organizational character from outside in the 60. </li></ul><ul><li>Model: Investigation -&gt; Development -&gt; Diffusion -&gt; Adoption (IDDA) </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of the invested resources, the innovations were very little. </li></ul><ul><li>All the innovations had a common pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>The teachers were passives consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>The values and goals of the school did not have any function in the process of the change. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not recognize change in the participants </li></ul>A brief History </li> <li> 26. <ul><li>2. First generation of school improvement programs </li></ul><ul><li>Key - Idea : the school must be the center of the key change </li></ul><ul><li>Questions : </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>To give importance to the organization and to the cultural processes </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Of seeing the results as problematic </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Understand the school as a dynamic institution </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Begins the preoccupation by the school culture </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Model : </li></ul><ul><li>Initiation Planning Implementation Evaluation Institutionalization </li></ul></li> <li> 27. <ul><li>Some learned lessons: </li></ul><ul><li>The more effective strategies of change were teacher trainning adapted to each school </li></ul><ul><li>Support to the classroom from external agents of change </li></ul><ul><li>To gather ideas of other projects of change </li></ul><ul><li>To make a continuous monitoring of the process of change </li></ul><ul><li>Participation of the teaching staff in the decision making </li></ul></li> <li> 28. <ul><li>3. Second generation of programs </li></ul><ul><li>Phase of the management of the change or capacity for the change </li></ul><ul><li>Some establishments: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Collective Learning: The schools will not improve if the teachers do not improve individual and collectively. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Participation of the community: The good schools have forms to work that they stimulate the participation of the school community, specially of the students. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Vision: The successful center that develops change knows a clearly vision of such. </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 29. <ul><li>Shared leadership: In the centers that improve, the leader shares information and responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Team work and coordination: It is necessary to foment the formal and informal contacts of the educational ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reflection: The center considers the questioning and the reflection important elements of the school. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning: A careful planning can help to turn the future desirable of the school, the vision, in improvement priorities, to order those priorities in the time and to maintain the attention on the practice of the classroom. </li></ul></li> <li> 30. Improvement process <ul><li>Initiation Implementation Institutionalization Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment: Diagnosis of the school </li></ul><ul><li>Planning: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Activities </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalization </li></ul></li> <li> 31. <ul><li>Coordination of the process </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to fundamental conditions of school culture </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to a few key goals </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement in a ongoing, dynamic process </li></ul><ul><li>Getting a fix on current reality </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of monitoring and evaluation </li></ul>Some key characteristics: </li> <li> 32. <ul><li>7. A focus on teaching and the improvement of learning </li></ul><ul><li>8. Recognition that each school is unique </li></ul><ul><li>9. The reality of multiple innovations and the need for interconnections </li></ul><ul><li>10. The benefits of a support infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>11. The fundamental question of impact </li></ul><ul><li>12. The developmental nature of a process of change </li></ul></li> <li> 33. 1. Initiation <ul><li>or mobilization or adoption: </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of the process that leads up and includes a decision to adopt or proceed with a c...</li></ul></li></ul>