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<ul><li><p>Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Technologies and Carbon Finance </p><p>World BankCarbon Finance Unit</p><p>Thailand, BangkokJanuary 24, 2008</p></li><li><p>Outline</p><p> Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) characteristics Current MSW systems in East Asia region Low cost MSW technologies Advanced MSW treatment technologies Comparison of MSW treatment technologies &amp; </p><p>carbon financing Recommendations</p></li><li><p>Waste Generation Rate</p><p>Income Generation Rate Waste Quantity*Level kg / capita / day tons / dayLow 0.5 500Middle 0.7 700High 1.6 1,600</p><p>* Assumed population 1.0 million.</p></li><li><p>Composition &amp; Moisture Content</p><p>Income LevelMaterial Low Middle High</p><p>Food 40-85% 20-65% 20-50%Paper 1-10% 15-40% 15-40%Recyclables 4-25% 5-26% 11-43%Fines 15-50% 15-50% 5-20%</p><p>Moisture 40-80% 40-60% 20-30%</p><p> More biomass organics / moisture beneficial to LFG and composting projects not favorable for combustion and thermal technologies</p><p> Moisture higher precipitation more rapid decomposition - - IPCC: &gt; 1,000 mm / yr.</p></li><li><p>Solid Waste Composition in Bangkok</p><p>2006 data</p><p>Paper, 11.79%</p><p>Plastic &amp; Foam, 26.47%</p><p>Stone, 0.26%</p><p>Food Waste, 44.99%</p><p>Glass, 1.65%</p><p>Metal, 1.62%</p><p>Rubber &amp; Leather, 1.03%</p><p>Yard Waste, 6.07%</p><p>Bone &amp; Shell, 0.92%</p><p>Fabric, 5.20%</p></li><li><p>Solid Waste Compositionin Bangkok (cont.)</p><p> 8,000-9,000 t/d Half (44-60%) water by weight Half (49-61%) is organic1 Third (33-45%) is combustible2</p><p>1 Food, yard and miscellaneous organic2 Paper, plastic, rubber, leather, textiles</p></li><li><p>Current MSWM systems in East Asia region</p><p> MSW collection rates: Singapore (90%), Bangkok, Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur (80 85%)</p><p> MSW practices: recycling / recovery, landfilling / open dumping, composting and incineration.</p><p> Composting and incineration plants installed are either not working or operating at low capacities for the following reasons: High O&amp;M costs Poor maintenance and operation of facilities Lack of expertise Poor pre-treatment (for ex. incomplete separation of non-</p><p>compostables, inhomogeneous waste feed to incinerator) High cost of compost compared to commercial fertilizers Local opposition to incineration is growing</p></li><li><p>Current MSW treatment systems in East Asia region</p><p>OthersIncinerationLandfillingOpen dumping</p><p>Composting</p><p>20--7010Vietnam15556510Thailand-7030--Singapore5-107510Philippines5-10805Myanmar55305010Malaysia</p><p>132106015Indonesia</p><p>Disposal / Treatment Methods (%)Country</p></li><li><p>Low cost MSW treatment technologies</p><p> Low cost and sound MSW disposal / treatment methods are: Controlled landfills: has clay liner, leachate collection and </p><p>treatment system, systematic layering and compaction of waste, regular covering, etc.)</p><p> Sanitary landfills: has geo-synthetic liner, leachate collection and treatment system, passive venting, proper operation)</p><p> Bio-reactor landfills: designed and operated as bio-reactor / anaerobic digestor. 15-25% less land requirement compared to sanitary landfills; maximization of LFG generation with time</p><p> Composting (windrow or passive) In-vessel composting is not low cost technology, but well </p><p>established and effective treatment process especially with MSW having high organic fraction (&gt;40%), low land availability (small footprint), odor problems, problems sitingof treatment facility</p></li><li><p>Landfill Design</p></li><li><p>LFG-to-Electricity (1 MW)Durban, South Africa</p></li><li><p>Landfill Gas (LFG) Recovery System</p></li><li><p>Technology I: windrow </p></li><li><p>Technology II: Aerated Static Pile</p></li><li><p>Technology III: In-Vessel</p></li><li><p>Landfilling verses Low cost composting of different types of wastes (500 t/d)</p><p>a: 65% organic content (requires sorting, composting and screening processes)b: 100% organic content (market / food waste)</p><p>50,000 - 100,000100,000 200,000</p><p>70,000 100,000</p><p>O&amp;M costUS$ / yr.</p><p>1-1.54-5$1 M + cost of landfill</p><p>Capital CostM US$</p><p>0.70.50.25Methane avoided (tons </p><p>CO2e/ton MSW) </p><p>600,000350,000175,000Total ERs 2009 -2014 (tCO2e)</p><p>Market/foodbMSW aSanitary Landfill</p></li><li><p>Advanced MSW treatment technologies (AMSWTT)</p><p>AMSWTT also referred to as waste to energy (WTE) technologies require 5 components:</p><p>1. Front end MSW pre-processing: is used to prepare MSW for treatment by the AMSWTT and separate any recyclables</p><p>2. Conversion unit (reactor)3. Gas and residue treatment plant (optional)4. Energy recovery plant (optional): Energy / chemicals </p><p>production system includes gas turbine, boiler, internal combustion engines for power production. Alternatively, ethanol or other organic chemicals can be produced</p><p>5. Emissions clean up</p></li><li><p>Pyrolysis Non-commercial has been proven technically at pilot </p><p>scale but not commercial scale / financially Thermal degradation of organic materials through use of </p><p>indirect, external source of heat Temperatures between 300 to 850oC are maintained for </p><p>several seconds in the absence of oxygen. Product is char, oil and syngas composed primarily of O2, </p><p>CO, CO2, CH4 and complex hydrocarbons. Syngas can be utilized for energy production or </p><p>proportions can be condensed to produce oils and waxes Syngas typically has net calorific value (NCV) of 10 to </p><p>20 MJ/Nm</p></li><li><p>Gasification Non-commercial has been proven technically (pilot scale) but </p><p>not not commercial scale / financially Can be seen as between pyrolysis and combustion </p><p>(incineration) as it involves partial oxidation. Exothermic process (some heat is required to initialize and </p><p>sustain the gasification process). Oxygen is added but at low amounts not sufficient for full </p><p>oxidation and full combustion. Temperatures are above 650oC Main product is syngas, typically has NCV of 4 to 10 </p><p>MJ/Nm3 Other product is solid residue of non-combustible materials </p><p>(ash) which contains low level of carbonN t N t l h NCV f d 38 MJ/N 3</p></li><li><p>Plasma Gasification Non-commercial has been proven technically (pilot scale) but </p><p>not not commercial scale / financially Use of electricity passed through graphite or carbon </p><p>electrodes, with steam and/or oxygen / air injection to produce electrically conducting gas (plasma)</p><p> Temperatures are above 3000oC Organic materials are converted to syngas composed of </p><p>H2, CO Inorganic materials are converted to solid slag Syngas can be utilized for energy production or </p><p>proportions can be condensed to produce oils and waxes</p></li><li><p>Plasma gasification</p><p>Plasma Plasma ReactorReactor</p><p>Heat RecoveryHeat RecoveryGas CleaningGas Cleaning</p><p>Boiler(Steam Generator) Turbo-generator</p><p>Medium Pressure Steam</p><p>High Pressure Steam</p><p>Power</p><p>MSW</p><p>Sync Gas</p><p>Clean Sync Gas</p><p>CO2 emissions Oxygen</p><p>Metals</p><p>Air</p><p>Gasification by Gasification by PlasmaPlasma</p></li><li><p>Incineration</p><p> Combustion of raw MSW, moisture less than 50% Sufficient amount of oxygen is required to fully oxidize </p><p>the fuel Combustion temperatures are in excess of 850oC Waste is converted into CO2 and water concern about </p><p>toxics (dioxin, furans) Any non-combustible materials (inorganic such as </p><p>metals, glass) remain as a solid, known as bottom ash (used as feedstock in cement and brick manufacturing)</p><p> Fly ash APC (air pollution control residue) particulates, etc</p><p> Needs high calorific value waste to keep combustion process going, otherwise requires high energy for maintaining high temperatures</p></li><li><p>Anaerobic digestion</p><p> Well known technology for domestic sewage and organic wastes treatment, but not for MSW</p><p> Biological conversion of biodegradable organic materials in the absence of oxygen at temperatures 55 to 75oC (thermophilic digestion most effective temperature range)</p><p> Residue is stabilized organic matter that can be used as soil amendment after proper dewatering</p><p> Digestion is used primarily to reduce quantity of sludge for disposal / reuse</p><p> Methane gas generated used for electricity / energy generation or flared</p></li><li><p>Advanced MSW treatment technologies (cont.)</p><p>General characteristics of AMSWTT are: Well established technologies in industrial sector / </p><p>domestic sewage (for anaerobic digestion), but not in the MSW sector. Exceptional case is incineration</p><p> For MSW, the AMSWTT are at demonstration stage, have not been designed for large MSW volumes (largest installed capacity is 400 t/d pyrolysis plant in Japan)</p><p> Very high capital, and O&amp;M costs Require skilled engineers / operators Have not been designed to handle heterogeneous mixed </p><p>MSW Not optimized in terms of overall energy and materials </p><p>production</p></li><li><p>Comparison of AMSWTT</p><p>9 1510 205 - 10500Sanitary landfill</p><p>12 - 3080 - 15016 - 9070-270Pyrolysis</p><p>500</p><p>500</p><p>300</p><p>9001300900</p><p>Plant capacity</p><p>(tons/day)</p><p>12 1815 - 3010 15Bioreactor landfill</p><p>9 1530 - 6050 80In vessel composting</p><p>12 - 2460 - 10020 - 80Anaerobic digestion</p><p>12 3080 - 15050 - 80Plasma gasification</p><p>54 9680 - 12030 - 180Incineration12 3080 - 15015 - 170Gasification</p><p>Planning to commissioning</p><p>(months)</p><p>O&amp;M cost(US$/ton)</p><p>Capital cost(M US$)</p><p>Technology</p></li><li><p>Recommendations</p><p> Carry out detailed feasibility study using Municipal Solid WasteDecision Support Tool (MSW DST) or similar model for a city, forevaluation of technical, economical, environmental, siting / permitting and social aspects to come up with most efficient integrated MSW system</p><p> AMSWTT should not be considered at this stage as these are underdevelopment, not proven to be cost effective with MSW in generaland especially at large scale, require expensive upstream pre-treatment, high expertise, etc.</p><p> Put appropriate source segregation programs, recycling centers, composting (in-vessel for cities with scarce land; market waste separate) and landfilling of rejected material (should not exceed 20-25% of total MSW generated)</p><p> Include carbon finance revenues in a programmatic manner to address MSW on the city or country level to maximize CF revenuesand at least pay for O&amp;M costs</p></li><li><p>THANK YOU VERY MUCH</p><p>FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT</p><p>Neeraj Prasad, nprasad@worldbank.orgAhmed Mostafa, amostafa1@worldbank.org</p><p>Nat Pinnoi, npinnoi@worldbank.orgCharles Peterson, cpeterson@worldbank.org</p></li><li><p>Useful References (1)</p><p>General Websites on CDM and JI: CFU website on CDM methodologies: Carbon Finance at </p><p>the World Bank: Methodology (www.carbonfinance.org) Website of the UNFCCC: CDM: CDM-Home</p><p>(http://cdm.unfccc.int/ and http://ji.unfccc.int/) Website on CDM (and JI) procedures (Ministry of the </p><p>Environment Japan, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies): http://www.iges.or.jp/en/cdm/report01.html</p><p> Website (UNEP, Ris Centre): CDM (and JI) pipeline overviewhttp://cd4cdm.org/index.htm</p><p>Website on Waste Management World Bank website: www.worldbank.org/solidwaste</p></li><li><p>Useful References (2)</p><p>Websites useful for country information and data: National Communications (for Annex I and non-Annex I </p><p>Countries) and National Emissions Inventories (Annex I countries): http://unfccc.int/national_reports/items/1408.php</p><p> IPCC Methodology reports (e.g. National Guidelines for National GHG Inventories) :http://www.ipcc.ch/pub/guide.htm</p><p> Website for energy statistics (International Energy Agency): http://www.iea.org/Textbase/stats/index.asp</p><p> Website on Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (World Resources Institute): http://cait.wri.org/</p><p> Website on emissions from oil and gas industry (US EPA Gasstar): http://www.epa.gov/gasstar/index.htm</p></li></ul>

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