municipal solid waste
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Municipal Solid Waste Generation Waste generation is often expressed in term of a waste generation rate, (Kg/Per.day). House hold waste generation increases with income.E.g. Kandy and Jaffna to be 0.85 kg/per.day and 0.92 kg/per.day respectively.The average waste generation rate in several study town to be 0.98kg/per.day, ranging from 0.88kg/per.day in Jaffna to 1.18 kg/per.day in Kandy.
Waste Generation Cont.Study obtained the following waste generation rate for Kandy.Low income 0.37 kg/Person.dayMiddle income 0.47kg/person.dayHigh income 0.67 kg/person.day
Municipal waste generation is also closely related to the state of the town/City economy,Developing countries 0.3 1.0 kg/per.dayDeveloped countries 1.0 2.5 kg/per.day
Waste Generation Cont.Waste generation is also affected by a number of other factors, including.The floating population, Season, Festivals and other special occasions.The waste generation rate may be also be used for SWM planning purpose, such asTo estimate the total amount of waste generated in different areas of the town/city by multiplying the generation rate by the population in these areas.To predict future waste generation based on expressed population and economic growth rates.
After waste is generated, people may dispose of it in a number of waysOn-site disposal burning and /or burialOn-site compostingRecycling, generally involving individual collectors visiting peoples PremisesDischarge for LA collectionIllegal dumpingLAs are most interested in the amount of waste discharged for collection. This may be expressed in terms of the waste discharged rate - the quantity of waste discharged for collection per person per day.
WASTE DISCHARGE CONT..Current Situation (Determine by Survey - 2001)2001 population = 110,000MSW 2001 waste generation rate
= 1.18kg/per.dayMSW 2001 waste discharge rate
= 0.85kg/per.dayCurrent MSW discharge = 110,000 X 0.85
= 92,441kg/day = 92.4 Tons/dayThis is shown in the following example for Jaffna.
Estimate population growth rate = 0.97%Estimate increase in waste discharge rate = 0.85
of economic growth rate = 2.2%Expected population in 2012
= 110,000 x 1.009710 = 121,202Expected MSW discharge rate in 2012
= 0.85 x 1.02210 = 1.04 kg/person.dayExpected MSW discharge in 2012 = 121,202 x 1.04 = 126,050 kg/day = 126 Tons/dayIncreased MSW discharge for collection = 36% in
10 yearsFuture Situation (2012)
The following composition data is also useful in SWM.Waste bulk density : Used for selecting and sizing storage containers, public bins and collection vehicles and for converting vehicle trips data to tons.
Moisture: Used for looking at treatment options, especially compositing and incineration.
Carbon to Nitrogen ratio : Useful for composting.
Waste composition for developing and developed countries
SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SRI LANKA
Comparative waste generation and composition Data. The physical composition of solid waste also varies between different societies and with income
ItemDeveloping CountriesDeveloped CountriesWaste generation (kg/person.day)0.3 1.0 1.5 2.5Waste CompositionCompostableRecyclablesOthers40 857 451 4020 -5025 801 20Bulk density (Kg/m3 wet wt)250 500100 170Moisture content (wt%)40 - 8020 - 30
Sri Lankan MSW is:Highly organic and moderately wet. Hence, it is suitable for composting.
Investment of Windrow compost plant processing 4Tons/day of garbage are 3.6M.Rs, while operation and maintenance costs are around 500Rs/Tons of waste composted.
There are many failed composting plants around Sri Lanka.
OBJECTIVE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTSWM may be broadly considered to have two main objectives:
Sanitation Environmental Sanitation
Good SWM is essential for protecting peoples health and the sustainable development of the town/city.
SANITATIONLA and/or contractor must provide an effective/efficient garbage collection and disposal service for the minimum acceptable cost. It involves the following.Protection Human Health Protecting public places/private property from nuisance /danger (E.g. Obtruction, odour, vermin and fire) Keeping the town / city clean
The main health/environmental risks associated with poor SWM are listed below:Organic waste rots quickly and smells. They spread disease such as typhoid, cholera, and can also cause diarrhoea, eye problems, skin disease, etc.Waste thrown into drains blocks them, causing them to fill up with water. This will cause floods during heavy rains.Insects especially mosquitoes, breed in the stagnant water. These cause diseases especially malaria, filarial and dengue.Water gets trapped in tins, plastics bags and tyres that have been thrown away mosquitoes, even more disease.Sanitation Cont.......
Good sanitation should be provide many people within the town/city: clean neighbourhoods - reduced disease health life beautiful environment.
Open dumpingThis creates serious hardship for people living near the disposal site. dumping at one place, usually in the open with no soil cover being applied or any other environmental protection measures being taken Environmental Protection
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION CONT..Discontinuing open dumping.
Implementing controlled tipping , which at the very least involves applying soil cover to the waste daily.
Progressing to sanitary land filling over a number of years, involving site security works, leachate treatment, land fill gas management, storm water/ground water management, etc.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION CONT..Environmental protection also involves taking a broader perspective looking at how we can minimise waste by:
Reducing the amount of waste generated.Reusing the waste materials as much as possible.Recycling waste materials into new useful items.Recovering energy from waste materials.Waste Minimising
BETTER SWMBetter SWM for environmental protection requires public, LA, voluntary/non-governmental organisation and private sector cooperation in order to be successful
LA should encourage Public participations in SWM. Reducing their SWM costs, while raising public awareness at the same time..
MANY OF THESE TASKS ARE INTER-RELATED. THEY REQUIRE THE SAME OR NEW SKILL NEW SWM SKILLS INCLUDES:REDUCING WASTE SCATTERINGIMPROVING GARBAGE COLLECTION EFFICIENCYIMPROVING FINAL DISPOSAL (SANITARY LAND FILLING)IMPROVED HEALTH CARE WASTE MANAGEMENTREDUCING SWM COSTSINCREASING PUBLIC PARTICIPATIONPUBLIC EDUCATION/AWARENESS RAISINGIMPROVED RECORD KEEPING (PERFORMANCE MONITORING)
NEW SWM TASKS
Establishment of new waste discharge systemCauses of waste scatteringHow to prevent waste scatteringNew waste discharge RuleDischarge Rules for difficult wastesNew Garbage collection methodsVehicle Bell CollectionKerbside collectionHand-card collectionDoor to door collectionPublic bin collectionStationary trailer systemREDUCING WASTE SCATTERING STRATEGY
REDUCING WASTE SCATTERING STRATEGYPublic Litter basket/binsFixed litter basket in busy streetFixed litter bins for parks, bus station, etcMovable litter bins for festival, events, etc
Improving Garbage collection efficiencyResidential waste, commercial, institutional and industrial wasteMarket wasteStreet sweeping and drain cleaningHand cardsHow to load waste into trailers
IMPROVING FINAL DISPOSAL
Introduction to Good Land-fillingLandfilling impacts Leachate and Landfill gasDisposal methodsClosure and aftercareMonitoring committeeProcedure for developing new land fill sites
Improving Healthcare waste managementIntroducion to National Policy for healthcare waste managementActual healthcare waste management
Reducing SWM costsSWM operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs, collection and transportation costsKeeping cost down.
Increasing Public ParticipationGet the support of Council membersInform and Educate the PublicEstablish effective communication channelsFollow up and resolve complaintsProvide reminder and feedback to the PublicTypical problems for Discussion
SWM A Changing Field
SWM ComponentsDescriptionGenerationProduction of all waste by different sourcesStorage And DischargeStorage: Generated waste is stored within the property of the people producing it for some time before dischargePart or all of the waste generated is put out for collection either within the property of the source itself (e.g. local hotels, some institutions) or outside the property.Storage may also some times be used to refer to waste discharged into public bins or stationary trailers for subsequent collection.
Collection and TransportationDischarged waste is collected by the LA and /or their contractor for transportation to processing/treatment and final disposal.Processing and treatmentSome (often none) of the discharged waste may be transported for processing and treatments. e.g. material separation and recovery, centralised composting and bio-gas generationDisposalMost (often all) of the collected waste is discharged at the final disposal site.
STRATEGY FOR REDUCING WASTE SCATTERING
Type of WsatePrevention MeasuresResidential, commercial, market, institutional and industrial wastesEstablishment of new waste