Multicultural Management

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An introduction to Multicultural Management.


  • Undergraduate Degree Multicultural Management and Leadership

  • Asif Iqbal

    MS Electrical Engineering South KoreaMBA PakistanMIT PakistanMA Sociology Pakistan (Online)MA International Relations(Online)MA Political Science(Online)Diploma JournalismInternational Research Articles IEEE

  • Why Multi Cultural Management

  • Cultural communication differencesBroadly speaking, body language can be divided into the following categories:Facial expressionsEye contactTouchUse of spaceGesturesSounds and other actions

  • Touch Some cultures, particularly in the middle east, may touch once or not at all, while North Americans could touch each other between two and four times an hour, according to some researchers.

    People from the United Kingdom, certain parts of Northern Europe and Asia touch far less, while in France and Italy people tend to touch far more frequently.

  • Personal SpaceAn individual's need for personal space varies from culture to culture. In the Middle East, people of the same sex stand much closer to each other than North Americans and Europeans, while people of the opposite sex stand much further apart. Japanese men stand four or five feet apart when having a discussion. Europeans and North Americans would probably regard having a conversation at this distance rather odd.

  • GoodThe thumbs up sign has positive connotations in the UK and US

  • Good?In Iran and Spain the 'thumbs up' sign is considered obscene

  • Okay?The 'okay' sign is obscene in Greece, parts of Eastern Europe and Latin America. It could also mean 'worthless' or 'zero' in France. In Japan, this means money.

  • However, in Latin America and France it is considered as an insulting and has negative connotations attached to it. In Australia, it means zero, and in Germany it may mean a job well done or an offensive insult depending on the region you visit. In New Zealand, this sign is not used much and considered a cheap way of saying OK. In Turkey, the OK sign means one is a homosexual.

  • hand gesture in Philippines. This is because this is one of the worst forms of hand gesture that is to be used only for dogs. This hand gesture could get you arrested in Philippines or maybe even punishable by breaking your finger.In Asian countries like Japan, the dog call is considered a rude gesture. In Singapore, it is indication of death.The Dog Call Hand Gesture

  • Snapping fingers over and over may mean one is trying to remember something someone has forgotten. In Latin America = asking one to hurry up. In Great Britain and America = one remembers something or gets an idea. However, in many cultures, snapping fingers close to someone's face = an offensive gesture.Finger Snap Hand Gesture

  • In America and European cultures = rude. This hand gesture is an indication of a dominant - to - subordinate behavior in the professional world. It is considered a gesture to single out an individual from a crowd. This aggressive signal is not liked by many, as no one likes to be singled out.Pointing Fingers Hand Gesture

  • The meaning of the V sign is partially dependent on the manner in which the hand is positioned: If the palm of the hand faces the signer (i.e., the back of the hand faces the observer), the sign is an insult. This usage is restricted largely to Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, and United Kingdom. With the back of the hand facing the signer (palm of the hand facing the observer), it can mean: Two (the number); Victory in a setting of wartime or competition; V (the letter) used when spelling in American Sign Language.The V Hand Sign

  • Nodding

    Moving the head from side to side could indicate agreement in Asia, whereas elsewhere in the world a similar shaking of the head means the opposite.

  • How to be rude without realisingSit with the soles of your shoes showing. In many cultures this sends a rude message. In Thailand, Japan and France as well as countries of the Middle and Near East showing the soles of the feet demonstrates disrespect. You are exposing the lowest and dirtiest part of your body so this is insulting.

  • How to be rude without realisingWave hand with the palm facing outward to greet someone. In Europe, waving the hand back and forth can mean No. This is also a serious insult in Nigeria if the hand is too close to another persons face.

  • True or FalseThe following expressions are universalAnger Disgust, contempt Fear Happiness Interest Sadness Surprise

  • True or FalseEye contact is a universal sign of respect and attentionStaring is always rudeLowering eyes is a sign of respect in all culturesRussians have the most control over their facial expressions and Americans the least

  • Afro-Caribbean peopleCommunication tips While in Western cultures eye contact is taken to mean honesty, in some Caribbean cultures people avoid eye contact as it is considered disrespectful and rude. Some African cultures have a longer look time, which people from Western cultures may interpret as a stare.

  • Asian people Communication tips In some Asian cultures people tend to avoid eye contact as it is considered disrespectful and rude. Some Asian women may find it difficult to converse with males, particularly when subjects of a personal nature are being discussed.

  • Chinese peopleCommunication tips Some Chinese people nod or bow slightly when greeting another person. A handshake is also acceptable. Some Chinese people do not like to be touched by people they dont know. A smile is preferred to a pat on the back or similar gesture.

  • Personal Space and British people British people like a lot of space around them.

    They tend not to make physical contact of any kind with strangers and feel very uncomfortable if anyone stands too close to them. They will instinctively draw away if anyone comes too close.

  • Personal space

    Whenever I travelled on a bus in UK the British person next to me would draw away from me as if they were afraid of catching a disease or of the colour rubbing off my skin.(Kenyan student)

  • The indirect BritishIn making polite requests, British people tend to use very indirect language, using the conditional tense and negatives.

    For instance, I dont suppose you could open the window, could you? rather than Please open the window.

  • British people never get to the point. They go around this way and that way, using twenty words where three would do. Its really hard to communicate with them. (Israeli student) `Some nationalities do not always seem very polite; `I want this or `I want that, no smiles nor a please nor a thank you. (British University Official)

  • Smiling British people smile a lot, compared to many national groups often for no particular reason.

    The British smile as a greeting, smile when asking for something, smile on receiving it.

  • I am Running Out of Time

  • I am Running Out of TimeMany times when one is getting late or wants to indicate running out of time, they tend to watch their wrist. This is despite the fact that they may or may not be wearing a watch on the wrist. This is a subconscious gesture to indicate an end of conversation or a subtle way that one should take leave. However, do not attempt this gesture in Middle Eastern countries. It is believed that once a conversation starts, it should be allowed to take its time to complete. Gesturing to end the conversation is considered a rude insult.

  • The British are so insincere. They smile even when they are not happy or pleased to see you. One woman smiled at me every time we passed each other and I thought she really liked me. So I asked her to come out and help me ,but she refused. She was leading me on and then turned me down (A male overseas student)

  • Naming systems Afro-Caribbean names The vast majority of Afro-Caribbean names conform to the traditional British pattern.

    Black Africans may adhere to one of a variety of naming structures. Generally, both men and women have up to four personal names, which may be shortened or lengthened. Here are some examples:

    Adeyemisi (female) Ade, Adeyemi, Yemi, YemisiAdeyetunde (male) Ade, Yetunde, Tunde, Adetunde

    Black African women tend to keep their own name on marriage.

  • Chinese names Traditionally, Chinese names are made up ofa family name followed by a personal name.

    Family namePersonal nameLeungLan-Ying

    Despite usually coming first, the family name should be regarded as the equivalent of the traditional British surname.

    One word of warning, though: some Chinese have changed their names so that the family name comes after their personal name. So how do you know which is which? Well, its usually pretty easy because personal names tend to be hyphenated. However, if neither of the names are hyphenated, then its always best to ask the person how they wish to be addressed.

  • Hindu names Hindu names have up to three components:

    Personal name Middle nameFamily nameRaviNathShah

    Hindu women generally take on their husbands family name when they get married. However, some Hindus have dropped their family name in rejection of the caste system. In this case, their middle name should be regarded as their surname, which may mean that married couples have different last names.

  • Muslim names (Male) Male Muslim names may have up to three components:A personal name and a religious name, in either order, possibly followed by a hereditary name.

    Personal (1st/2nd)Religious (1st/2nd)HereditaryAminAllahChoudhury

    A Muslim should never be addressed by h