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  • 9/16/13 Mrunal [Science] TheHindu Dec12: Asteroid Mining, GRAIL, MoonKAMs, Liquiglide, Oraquick and more Science-Tech for UPSC CSAT Print

    mrunal.org/2012/12/science-hindu-asteroid-mining-grail-moonkam-liquiglide-oraquick-sci-tech-upsc-csat.html/print/ 1/10

    [Science] TheHindu Dec12: Asteroid Mining, GRAIL, MoonKAMs,Liquiglide, Oraquick and more Science-Tech for UPSC CSAT

    1. Space relatedAsteroid Mining + Space Station

    Mercury Messenger

    GRAIL

    MoonKAMs

    Ebb and Flow, Sally Ride

    2. Science-TechLiquiGlide

    Plastic light bulb

    Nuke Desalination plant

    MakerBot Replicator

    Switchblade Drone

    Element 113

    3. BiologyBiological Plough Redgram

    Handheld Dental X-ray

    Why skin itching during wound healing?

    OraQuick Home

    Parkinsons disease

    Dogs in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

    NHRDF-RED-2

    4. Mock Questions

    Space related

    Asteroid Mining + Space Station

    NASAs plan for Asteroids?

    NASA scientists are planning to capture a 500,000 kg asteroid, and transform itinto a space station for astronauts to refuel at on their way to Mars.This technology would also open up the possibility of mining other asteroids fortheir metals and minerals.Some asteroids are full of iron which could be used for in the making of newspace stationsOthers asteroids are made up of water which could be broken down into

  • 9/16/13 Mrunal [Science] TheHindu Dec12: Asteroid Mining, GRAIL, MoonKAMs, Liquiglide, Oraquick and more Science-Tech for UPSC CSAT Print

    mrunal.org/2012/12/science-hindu-asteroid-mining-grail-moonkam-liquiglide-oraquick-sci-tech-upsc-csat.html/print/ 2/10

    hydrogen and oxygen to make fuelNASA plans to accomplish this in next 10-12 years.

    Asteroids Comets

    Small rocky or metallic body thatorbits the Sun.Most asteroids are found betweenthe orbits of the planets Mars andJupiter in a wide region called theasteroid belt.It is because of their small sizeand large numbers relative to themajor planets that asteroids arealso called minor planets.

    small icy body in space that shedsgas and dust.A Comet appears generally as abright head with a long tail.The length of the tail grows in sizeas it approaches the sun. (becauseSuns heat coverts the ice directlyinto gas without melting).The tail of a comet is alwaysdirected away from the sunHalleys comet, appears after nearlyevery 76 years.

    Meteors Meteroites

    A meteor is usually a small objectthat Occasionally enters theearths atmosphere.At that time it has a very highspeed. The friction due to theatmosphere heats it up.It glows and evaporates quickly.Hence known as Shooting stars.

    Some meteors are large so that theycan reach the Earth before theyevaporate completely.The body that reaches the Earth iscalled a meteorite

  • 9/16/13 Mrunal [Science] TheHindu Dec12: Asteroid Mining, GRAIL, MoonKAMs, Liquiglide, Oraquick and more Science-Tech for UPSC CSAT Print

    mrunal.org/2012/12/science-hindu-asteroid-mining-grail-moonkam-liquiglide-oraquick-sci-tech-upsc-csat.html/print/ 3/10

    Comet and its tail

    Mercury Messenger

    Mercury is the innermost planet in the Solar System.NASAs MESSENGER spacecraft has reported presence of water-ice onMercury.

    GRAIL

    GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) mission.It is NASAs first planetary mission to carry cameras fully dedicated toeducation and public outreach.

    MoonKAMs

    MoonKAM= Moon Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students.The MoonKams captures images of the moons surface and sends them to thestudents for study.

    Ebb and Flow, Sally Ride

    Two NASA spacecraft Ebb and Flow, equippped with MoonKAMs andorbitting around Moon since 2011 under GRAIL mission.But they did not have sufficient altitude or fuel to continue science operations.Hence NASA team crash-landed them on Moon in Dec 2012.The place where they crash landed is named after Sally K. Ride, Americas firstwoman astronaut.

    Science-Tech

    LiquiGlide

  • 9/16/13 Mrunal [Science] TheHindu Dec12: Asteroid Mining, GRAIL, MoonKAMs, Liquiglide, Oraquick and more Science-Tech for UPSC CSAT Print

    mrunal.org/2012/12/science-hindu-asteroid-mining-grail-moonkam-liquiglide-oraquick-sci-tech-upsc-csat.html/print/ 4/10

    Ketchup wont stick inside bottle anymore!

    A coating material for any type food containers glass, ceramic, metal andplastic.It is super-slippery and non-toxic hence you can easily pickout last drop ofhoney, fruitjam, ketchup or oil from the insides of food containers.No scraping, rinsing of bottles required.And the compound is safe enough to eat.

    Other applications

    Keep ice off the wings of an airplaneHelp easy flow in oil and gas pipelines where insides of pipes sees buildup oforganic compounds that clog supply networks.For cosmetics: can pour last drop of expensive lotions out.

    Plastic light bulb

    a new kind of light bulb that uses plastic polymers and nano materials to generatelightIt is more energy-efficient than current fluorescent lights and is easier on theeye.It doesnt produce humming sound like those fluorescent tubes.

    Nuke Desalination plant

    Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant (NDDP) located at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu.

    It is the worlds largest hybrid seawater desalination plant coupled to an existingnuclear power plant.

  • 9/16/13 Mrunal [Science] TheHindu Dec12: Asteroid Mining, GRAIL, MoonKAMs, Liquiglide, Oraquick and more Science-Tech for UPSC CSAT Print

    mrunal.org/2012/12/science-hindu-asteroid-mining-grail-moonkam-liquiglide-oraquick-sci-tech-upsc-csat.html/print/ 5/10

    Principle:

    when the pressure drops, the boiling point of seawater also drops.The excess heat generated from nuclear reaction causes seawater to flashevaporate into pure water vapour.The water vapour is then condensed to produce distilled water.

    MakerBot Replicator

    Using makerbot, you can print your own 3D toys!

    desktop-size 3-D printer.Instead of using ink, it spreads ultra-thin plastic layers, each melting into thelayer below to create a 3D-object.

    Switchblade Drone

    Its a kamikaze (suicide bombing) type drone.The person controlling it uses a real-time video feed from the drone to crash itinto a precise targetsay, a sniper and its tiny warhead detonates on impact.

    Element 113

  • 9/16/13 Mrunal [Science] TheHindu Dec12: Asteroid Mining, GRAIL, MoonKAMs, Liquiglide, Oraquick and more Science-Tech for UPSC CSAT Print

    mrunal.org/2012/12/science-hindu-asteroid-mining-grail-moonkam-liquiglide-oraquick-sci-tech-upsc-csat.html/print/ 6/10

    Japan has created three atoms of the highly unstable superheavy element 113.This element is yet nameless, but it has an enormous nucleus containing 113protons and 165 neutrons.

    Biology

    Biological Plough Redgram

    Pigeonpea, commonly known as redgram, arhar or tur,It is leguminous plant.it is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen and thereby restores nitrogencontent in the soil.Its deep rooting system helps in extracting nutrients and moisture from deepersoil layers thus making it suitable for rainfed condition.Deeper rooting system of the crop also helps in breaking the tough dry soil andit is also called as biological plough.

    Handheld Dental X-ray

    Genuine Handheld X-ray sets are very expensive. But now Chinamade Cheaperproducts are in the market.But they do not have adequate shielding in the X-ray tube.And leads to accidental leakage radiation.In India, use of such medical X-ray instruments need approval from AtomicEnergy Regulatory Board. (AERB)Use of radiation generating equipment not approved by AERB is a violation ofthe legal provisions and will attract action under the appropriate provisions ofthe Atomic Energy Act 1962

    Why skin itching during wound healing?

    Histamine =chemical mediator involved in the allergic reactions.Histamine dilates blood vessels to facilitate the entry of immune cells onto thewound site to ward off infection.But It also acts on the nerve endings causing itching.Itching can also be caused due to allergy for the ointments/ medications appliedWhen new skin that is formed is devoid of the normal oil glands .This drynessalso provokes the nerve endings causing itching.

    OraQuick Home

  • 9/16/13 Mrunal [Science] TheHindu Dec12: Asteroid Mining, GRAIL, MoonKAMs, Liquiglide, Oraquick and more Science-Tech for UPSC CSAT Print

    mrunal.org/2012/12/science-hindu-asteroid-mining-grail-moonkam-liquiglide-oraquick-sci-tech-upsc-csat.html/print/ 7/10

    Oraquick-Detect HIV @Home

    Its the first Do It Yourself testkit for detecting HIVthe same one that healthprofessionals use but without the trip to a doctors office or the need to waitdays for results.

    Parkinsons disease

    is caused by loss of the neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine(known as dopaminergic neurons).Researchers have now derived dopaminergic neurons from bone marrow stemcells in monkeys to cure it.

    Dogs in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

  • 9/16/13 Mrunal [Science] TheHindu Dec12: Asteroid Mining, GRAIL, MoonKAMs, Liquiglide, Oraquick and more Science-Tech for UPSC CSAT Print

    mrunal.org/2012/12/science-hindu-asteroid-mining-grail-moonkam-liquiglide-oraquick-sci-tech-upsc-csat.html/print/ 8/10

    Mudumalai tiger reserve = Tamilnadu.

    Issue: Domestic dogs from surrouding villages are hunting small birds and mammalsnear forest edges.

    Why problem?

    1. Lower prey availability for wild carnivores like tigers and leopards2. These dogs may also be spreading rabies and other diseases to wild animals3. Mudumalai, also has large populations of the endangered wild dog or dhole.4. They eat infected carcasses hunted by domestic dogs=spread of disease.5. Training vill