motivational interviewing chapter 4 what is motivational interviewing?
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Motivational Interviewing Chapter 4 What is Motivational Interviewing? Slide 2 There is a fundamental spirit of MI that is much more important than any particular set of techniques Important aspects of that spirit include collaboration, evocation and autonomy Slide 3 Collaboration The counselor avoids an authoritarian one-up stance, instead communicating a partner-like relationship. Exploration and support rather than persuasion or argument Slide 4 Evocation The interviewers tone is not one of imparting things (such as wisdom, insight, reality) but rather of eliciting, or finding these things within and drawing them out from the person Slide 5 Evocation It is not an instilling or installing but, rather, an eliciting, a drawing out of motivation from the person Slide 6 Autonomy Responsibility for change is left with the client Respect is shown for the individual's autonomy Slide 7 Autonomy When motivational interviewing is done properly, it is the client rather than the counselor who presents the arguments for change Slide 8 There are four general principles of Motivational Interviewing 1. Express empathy 2. Develop discrepancy 3. Roll with resistance 4. Support self-efficacy Slide 9 Express Empathy A client-centered and empathic counseling style is one fundamental and defining characteristic of motivational interviewing The counselor seeks to understand the client's feelings and perspectives without judging, criticizing, or blaming Slide 10 Express Empathy Acceptance is not the same thing as agreement or approval The crucial attitude is a respectful listening to the person with a desire to understand his or her perspective Slide 11 Express Empathy The attitude of acceptance and respect builds a working therapeutic alliance and supports the client's self-esteem, which further promotes change. Slide 12 Develop Discrepancy Motivational interviewing is intentionally directive -- directed toward the resolution of ambivalence in the service of change Slide 13 Develop Discrepancy Motivational interviewing is specifically directed toward getting people unstuck, helping them move past ambivalence toward positive behavior change Slide 14 Develop Discrepancy A second general principle of motivational interviewing is thus to create and amplify, from the client's perspective, a discrepancy between present behavior and his or her broader goals and values. Slide 15 Develop Discrepancy If the behavior gap is very large, it can decrease motivation by diminishing confidence Slide 16 Develop Discrepancy When skillfully done, motivational interviewing changes the person's perceptions (of discrepancy) without creating any sense of being pressured or coerced. Slide 17 Develop Discrepancy People are often more persuaded by what they hear themselves say than by what other people tell them. Slide 18 Roll With Resistance Resistance that a person offers can be turned or reframed slightly to create a new momentum toward change Slide 19 Roll With Resistance In motivational Interviewing one does not directly oppose resistance but, rather, rolls or flows with it Slide 20 Roll With Resistance What to do about a problem, if anything, is ultimately an individual decision It is not the counselor's job to provide all the answers and generate all the solutions Slide 21 Roll With Resistance It is assumed that the person is a capable and autonomous individual, with important insight and ideas for the solution of his or her own problems Slide 22 Roll With Resistance Resistance is an interpersonal phenomenon, and how the counselor responds will influence whether it increases or diminishes Slide 23 Support Self-Efficacy Hope and faith are important elements of change A general goal of motivational interviewing is to enhance the client's confidence in his or her capability to cope with obstacles and to succeed in change Slide 24 Support Self-Efficacy A person may also be encouraged by the success of others or by his or her own past successes in changing behavior Slide 25 Summary It is vital to understand the overall spirit and underlying assumptions of the method Motivational interviewing is a skillfull clinical method, not a set of techniques that can be easily learned Slide 26 Summary Motivational interviewing is more than a set of techniques for doing counseling. It is a way of being with people.