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<p>NASA</p> <p>CONTRACTOR REPORT</p> <p>LOAN COPY: RETURN TO AFWL (WLIL-2) KlRTUND AFB, N MEX</p> <p>PROJECT MOON-BLINKvepared by</p> <p>,,</p> <p>..</p> <p>,.</p> <p>RIDENTmapolis, 0Goddard</p> <p>ENGINEERING Md.Space Flight Cewter</p> <p>ASSOCIATES,</p> <p>INC.</p> <p>[IONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION</p> <p>.</p> <p>WASHINGTON, 0. C. .</p> <p>OCTOBER 1966</p> <p>TECH LIBRARY KAFB, NM</p> <p>NASA CR-636</p> <p>pnb0245</p> <p>PROJECT</p> <p>MOON-BLINK</p> <p>Distribution of this report is provided information exchange. Responsibility resides in the author or organization</p> <p>in the interest of for the contents that prepared it.</p> <p>Prepared TRIDENT</p> <p>under Contract ENGINEERING Annapolis,</p> <p>No. NAS 5-9613 by ASSOCIATES, INC. Md. Center</p> <p>for Goddard</p> <p>Space Flight</p> <p>NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATIONFor sale by the Clearinghouse Springfield, for Federal Scientific and Technical Virginia 22151 - Price $2.50 Information</p> <p>ABSTRACT This tract Center, sion 1964. The work servation and identify telescope Trident Using graphic Trident neers cruited, country consisted of unusual employing personnel this device Maryland, Port fabricated trained, of 1) the color this development of devices surveillance equipment. a rotating-filter, a "Moon-Blink" surveillance phenomena. installed detectors, in other parts at Trident color device. at Port Photothe engithey reof the to improve order program obvia Trident's final report on "Project dated Moon-Blink" for describes Goddard work performed under conSpace Flight and expan(of June 25,</p> <p>by Trident</p> <p>Engineering Greenbelt, project open-end</p> <p>Associates, This under</p> <p>Annapolis, was the</p> <p>Maryland, continuation dated</p> <p>NAS 5-9613, of the</p> <p>June 1, 1965,</p> <p>Maryland. initiated task order</p> <p>Work Order</p> <p>No. 641-W-89329</p> <p>contract</p> <p>NAS 5-3757)</p> <p>occurrences especially</p> <p>on the moon in designed</p> <p>to record</p> <p>such phenomena and 2) a lunar</p> <p>developed they</p> <p>and fabricated called several a constant</p> <p>image-intensification Tobacco,</p> <p>instrument maintained and observed observatory.</p> <p>and spectrographic Tobacco and installed</p> <p>equipment</p> <p>was also At the</p> <p>same time</p> <p>ten Moon-Blink observers network.</p> <p>and supervised</p> <p>to form an observing 15, 1965, the first</p> <p>On November rence</p> <p>photographs observatory.</p> <p>of a lunar</p> <p>color</p> <p>occur-</p> <p>weremadeat</p> <p>the Port</p> <p>Tobacco are based</p> <p>The following this 1. 2. effort.</p> <p>conclusions</p> <p>upon experience</p> <p>gained</p> <p>during</p> <p>Red colorations These colorations sighting, (sunrise</p> <p>do appear</p> <p>on the for</p> <p>lunar</p> <p>surface. hours. The Trident four hours</p> <p>may persist 15, 1965, further</p> <p>several lasted</p> <p>on November prevented</p> <p>at least</p> <p>viewing).</p> <p>iii</p> <p>3.</p> <p>The detection greater graphye than</p> <p>capability direct</p> <p>of'the</p> <p>Moon-Blink</p> <p>device color</p> <p>is</p> <p>much</p> <p>viewing</p> <p>or conventional</p> <p>photo-</p> <p>4.</p> <p>The "Hot-line" an effective</p> <p>technique</p> <p>(telephone other volunteer</p> <p>conference observatories. observers</p> <p>network)</p> <p>is</p> <p>means of alerting of unpaid</p> <p>5.</p> <p>The effectiveness</p> <p>is</p> <p>doubtful.</p> <p>Summary of recommendations: 1. Since surplus, in 2. order critical equipment was not available items of certain to realize The size, be determined the is in tasks. the full for potenand of scientific government</p> <p>purchase to permit should these</p> <p>of off-the-shelf completion be continued apparatus.</p> <p>recommended</p> <p>Observations tial nature lunar of</p> <p>of the Moon-Blink</p> <p>frequency,</p> <p>phenomena should</p> <p>information</p> <p>and as an aid</p> <p>to enhance</p> <p>effectiveness</p> <p>landings.</p> <p>iv</p> <p>TABLE</p> <p>OF</p> <p>CONTENTS</p> <p>ABSTRACT...................... INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 1.2 Prologue "Project Moon-Blink</p> <p>iii 1 12</p> <p>DETAILED DISCUSSION 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.52.6</p> <p>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .</p> <p>3</p> <p>2.7 2.8</p> <p>Moon-Blink Detector MoonyBlink Network qfHot-Lineff Network Port Tobacco Observations Multi-Purpose Detector Image Orthicon Installation Automatic Detector Procurement of Surplus Material</p> <p>2 6 8 9 11 1111</p> <p>RESULTS3.1</p> <p>. , . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . of Detection Determined of Color Phenomena</p> <p>12 12 12</p> <p>3.2</p> <p>Threshold Detection</p> <p>THEORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 4.2 External Internal Causes Causes</p> <p>13</p> <p>13 13 1414</p> <p>RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1</p> <p>Continue</p> <p>Project</p> <p>Moon-Blink</p> <p>V</p> <p>--</p> <p>APPENDIXES I. II. III. IV. v. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. l&amp;t of Significant Description Observations of Typical Sightings Moon-Blink Detector Team (Copied From by Trident</p> <p>Functional</p> <p>Details of Confirmed Individual Reports) Photographic Photographic Functional Functional Functional Functional Unusable Threshold Moon-Blink Moon-Blink Technique</p> <p>Film-Development Description Description Description Description</p> <p>Technique Equipment Technique TV Installation Automatic Furnished Lunar Detector Equipment EventsEquipment</p> <p>of Spectrographic of Infrared of Proposed of Proposed Government Analysis Custody</p> <p>or Undelivered of Detectability</p> <p>of Ephemeral</p> <p>Microdensitometer Stations</p> <p>Negative Retaining</p> <p>of Government</p> <p>Equipment</p> <p>in Custody</p> <p>of GSFC</p> <p>vi</p> <p>-</p> <p>INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1.1 There about mer, like with PROLOGUE have been some puzzling listed in cloud. it that saying Linne Linne five reported a whitish miles diameter. Later reports -over the years. but steep-walled but with miles top. foremost Moore astronomer. a similar but seen it -Moore attribconlooked both Before crater more de-</p> <p>1843 astronomers</p> <p>as a normal a crater</p> <p>In 1866 Schmidt, at all four its observers in diameter Moore, miles then disagreed in</p> <p>a famed astrono-</p> <p>was not</p> <p>scriptions,</p> <p>was a low mound" about one mile</p> <p>across,</p> <p>a deep crater -lunar it with it in</p> <p>Much later temporary examined inexplicable the next a gently uted During the</p> <p>1961 --</p> <p>Patrick three</p> <p>one of the that in diameter. another</p> <p>astronomers, crater with Linne about a third appeared two telescopes</p> <p>was astonished called night</p> <p>Linne</p> <p>appeared</p> <p>to be a normal He examined</p> <p>instrument The following a small lighting several color</p> <p>and reported</p> <p>appearance. night rounded changes past surface. localized dome with to unusual ten years</p> <p>was cloudy,</p> <p>as Moore had always crater on top. effects. incontrovertible activity into miles of the</p> <p>the</p> <p>observations on or just of lunar above area and two categories:</p> <p>have been reported the lunar those those events covering</p> <p>of unusual</p> <p>These may be divided to a few square portion</p> <p>a significant evidence exists are</p> <p>lunar</p> <p>surface. whether in portion nature. of the</p> <p>Insufficient these visible curred region However, they</p> <p>at present similar themselves two lunar</p> <p>to determine or dissimilar in the red</p> <p>two types spectrum.</p> <p>of events both manifest in</p> <p>The localized</p> <p>observations areas:</p> <p>most frequently and Alphonsus.</p> <p>to date have octhe Aristarchus</p> <p>1</p> <p>Appendix which duration</p> <p>I of this-report because -minutes of This</p> <p>lists</p> <p>a number of modern observations changes. Most were of short</p> <p>are peculiar</p> <p>of color</p> <p>or hours. transient events demands a program astronomical by Dr. Z. Kopal of coninat program of</p> <p>The detection stant struments. Commission Space Flight utilizing detecting caused 1.2</p> <p>these</p> <p>surveillance</p> <p>of the moon with was strongly on April</p> <p>suitable by the 1965. feasible</p> <p>recommended 15-16, is not</p> <p>17 (The Moon) sponsored Center large these astronomical occurrences and/or</p> <p>IAU and NASA at Goddard A surveillance capable</p> <p>telescopes by prior</p> <p>inherently because</p> <p>of problems</p> <p>by economics</p> <p>commitments.</p> <p>PROJECT "MOON-BLINK" surveillance (with a 16-inch Engineering (covered color program by capable consisting aperture), under dated open-end to develop conceived concerns contract 1966, further, in in Contract developing report amateur of a network suitably Goddard task astronomers of equipped, was estabSpace 1964. confor James B. that work schedfollowthe pro-</p> <p>An intensive telescopes lished Flight This tract a lunar order uled which ing that</p> <p>or larger</p> <p>and manned voluntarily by Trident Center work order NAS 5-3757) transient and the carried</p> <p>Associates</p> <p>Work Order</p> <p>No. 641-W-89329, by Trident's Trident first This nine-month 28, considerably tasks detailed by Trident detector</p> <p>June 25, order a concept by Dr. both</p> <p>authorized</p> <p>Edson of NASA Headquarters. subsequent the project the and the to terminate page are listed system which it on February</p> <p>(NAS 5-9613, On the</p> <p>and extended</p> <p>one month) NAS 5-9613 both the name</p> <p>were to be accomplished</p> <p>detection gram in</p> <p>equipment.</p> <p>The detector have been given</p> <p>and the</p> <p>has been utilized</p> <p>ffMoon-Blink.tf</p> <p>2</p> <p>DETAILED DISCUSSION 2.1 MOON-BLINK . detector immediately static image is viewed is based on the principle that the eye's on be drawn by any movement occurring In the Moon-Blink detector image. by alternating 120 times electro-optical visible image of the tube,</p> <p>The Moon-Blink attention any part the filters this changes appear Figure2 will</p> <p>of a large, at a rate</p> <p>telescopic image is in</p> <p>intercepted</p> <p>of approximately by a suitable on the Figure is device detector face at either</p> <p>red and blue When per minute. device, spectrum thus will drawing and</p> <p>color</p> <p>end of the</p> <p>as a '*blink** shows the</p> <p>the eye to the spot. of the Moon-Blink 2.1.1</p> <p>1 shows the included</p> <p>detector</p> <p>components description II.</p> <p>installed.</p> <p>A more complete as Appendix</p> <p>MOON-BLINK DEMONSTRATOR of prospective observers, two Moon-Blink These demonstrators consisted were constructed. light source, screen, the lunar surface with a small spot infrared filter, and training</p> <p>To facilitate demonstrators of: a.</p> <p>A fluorescent suitable</p> <p>diffusing of</p> <p>b.</p> <p>A 35mm slide of red food</p> <p>dye applied lens (with located red dot)</p> <p>at one location. to project on the an image of the face .of the image</p> <p>c.</p> <p>A positive 35mm slide tube.</p> <p>d.</p> <p>A variable-speed, lens and the image</p> <p>two-color tube.</p> <p>filter</p> <p>wheel</p> <p>between</p> <p>the</p> <p>3</p> <p>-F=</p> <p>Figure</p> <p>1.</p> <p>Moon-Blink Detector components. cylinder with eyepiece visible, wheel (wheel inside rectangular</p> <p>Image tube mounted inside motor attached to filter housing), and power supply.</p> <p>Figure</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Moon-Blink Detector mounted on Johnson 16-inch Port Tobaccos Maryland,</p> <p>telescope,</p> <p>With the white</p> <p>the</p> <p>filter with</p> <p>wheel of the at the</p> <p>rotating, image tube) exception the rate</p> <p>the</p> <p>image of the spot</p> <p>slide food</p> <p>(as seen black dye, and</p> <p>at</p> <p>eyepiece image,</p> <p>appears of the filter</p> <p>to be a static of red wheel rotation.</p> <p>which</p> <p>appears 2.2</p> <p>to blink</p> <p>of the</p> <p>MOON-BLINK NETWORK installed the country of these point. MOON-BLINK NETWORK the was the Moon-Blink below Johnson equipment Observatory and established at elevenobservatories map' Figure Tobacco' prime 3). Md.' obserat Port as the</p> <p>Trident across First staffed vation</p> <p>(listed personnel</p> <p>and shown on the</p> <p>by Trident</p> <p>Observatory Johnson Monte Sano Kansas City Astron. Club Lunar &amp; Planetary Lab. Stamford Museum Whittier College Celestronics Foothill College Bradley Pan American College Leander McCormick 2.3 "HOT-LINE" NETWORK Transient conference-call</p> <p>Location Port Tobacco, Md. Huntsville, Ala. Kansas'City, MoO Tucson' Arizona Stamford, Conn. Whittier, Calif. P~los Verdes, Calif. Los Altos, Calif. Deca,tur, Georgia Edinburg, Texas Charlottesville, Va.</p> <p>Reflector 16" 20" 16" 16" 22" TV 19" 22" 16" TV 30" 17" 8"</p> <p>A "Hot-Lineally</p> <p>Lunar</p> <p>Phenomena Confirmation net) was established.</p> <p>Network" It</p> <p>(actuconnects</p> <p>a telephone</p> <p>three of the Moon-Blink Stations with selected major observatories. Thus, when sightings are made, these professional observatories can be quickly alerted to observe the event.</p> <p>6</p> <p>Los</p> <p>ALTOSKANSAS CITY</p> <p>PT.</p> <p>TOBACCO</p> <p>CHINA</p> <p>LAKE</p> <p>WHITTIER</p> <p>-</p> <p>TUCSON</p> <p>HUNTSVILLE -40</p> <p>FIGURE</p> <p>3.</p> <p>MOON-BLINK</p> <p>STATION</p> <p>NETWORK</p> <p>"HOT-LINE" Observational Fels Planetarium Flower &amp; Cook Ohs. Georgetown Observatory Goddard Optical System Allegheny Observatory Harvard Observatory Johnson Observatory * Sproul Observatory U. S. Naval Observatory Bradley Observatory* Leander McCormick Observatory* Arthur J. Dyer Observatory AAVSO AAVSO Monte Sano Observatory* University of Maryland Observatory *Also 2.4 "Moon-Blink" Stations</p> <p>NETWORK Location Philadelphia, Pa. Philadelphia, Pa. Washington, D. C. Greenbelt, Md. Pittsburgh, Pa. Cambridge, Mass. Port Tobacco, Md. Swarthmore, Pa. Washington, D. C. Decatur, Ga. Charlotiesville, Va. Nashville, Tenn. Mountainside, N. J. Louisville, Ky. Huntsville, Ala. College Park, Md.</p> <p>PORT TOBACCO OBSERVATIONS visual sightings patrol of the moon has resulted events confirmed sightings listed below by at --least not in three qualiconfirmed made</p> <p>A continuous "Moon-Blink" personnel. fied during by qualified this October red Port August spot Trident observers.</p> <p>of color</p> <p>on the moon by Trident three visually</p> <p>They were visually (Two additional observers period.) 27, at 1964 Edgar the base of Md. and not</p> <p>were also</p> <p>D. Hall</p> <p>and Lyle the</p> <p>T. J.ohnson detected with at 16-inch reflector</p> <p>a the</p> <p>the central using</p> <p>peak of Alphonsus</p> <p>Moon-Blink Tobacco, 21,</p> <p>detector</p> <p>1965 John Gilheany detected (not Md. a large-scale observable</p> <p>and Lyle blink without</p> <p>T. Johnson, within</p> <p>Trident from</p> <p>observers, Aristarchus Port</p> <p>the crater device)</p> <p>Moon-Blink</p> <p>Tobacco,</p> <p>November observers, Aristarchusas well</p> <p>15,</p> <p>1965 Edgar (not</p> <p>D. Hall</p> <p>and David blinking</p> <p>A. Nordling, (4 hours) in device).</p> <p>Trident the crater Color</p> <p>detected as black confirmed</p> <p>a long-term photos</p> <p>observable and white sightings</p> <p>without</p> <p>Moon-Blink were taken Trident</p> <p>of the event. team are included</p> <p>Details</p> <p>of the III,</p> <p>by the</p> <p>as Appendix 2.5 2.5.1</p> <p>MULTI-PURPOSE DETECTOR PHOTOGRAPHIC CAPABILITY priority of instrumentation photographic at the Johnson Observatory To implement</p> <p>The second this reflex Johnson</p> <p>was to achieve requirement, typewere</p> <p>a reliable</p> <p>capabiltiy.</p> <p>two 35-millimeter cameras of the single-lens, procured and adapted for use on the 16-inch</p> <p>telescope, was made sufficiently (or effective focal focal length flexible length) that varying was</p> <p>The camera configuration degrees In used for Appendix while 2.5.2 Several to the Design bility with of magnification most exposures. IV discusses general,</p> <p>were available.</p> <p>the maximum effective</p> <p>of 720 inches</p> <p>the photographic the film</p> <p>techniques development</p> <p>in</p> <p>some detail, employed.</p> <p>Appendix</p> <p>V describes</p> <p>techniques</p> <p>SPECTROGRAPHIC CAPABILITY basic selection requisites acceptable conceptual of the included dispersive which would spectrograph instrument designs described were considered below, easy adaptaconsistent and, the field finally, when prior</p> <p>to a telescope</p> <p>modest cost; light weig...</p>