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  • 7/24/2019 Monson, Concilio Di Trento

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    The Council of Trent RevisitedAuthor(s): Craig A. MonsonReviewed work(s):Source: Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 55, No. 1 (Spring 2002), pp. 1-37Published by: University of California Presson behalf of the American Musicological SocietyStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/jams.2002.55.1.1.

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    The Council

    of Trent

    Revisited

    CRMG A. MONSON

    h e

    lastfiftyyearshavewitnessed significanteinterpretationot

    only

    of the

    Council

    of

    Trent,

    but

    also of

    its aftermath.

    Long

    regarded

    as

    a

    reaction and counterattack

    against

    Protestantism,

    a

    viewpoint

    that

    originally

    arose out of northern

    European

    historiography,

    he conclave

    has

    been resituatedwithina

    continuity

    of Catholicreform and

    popular

    devotional

    movements

    spanning

    many generations.

    The Council

    is no

    longer

    perceived

    as an

    ultimately

    decisive

    event,

    which

    by

    its decrees

    effectively

    turned

    Catholicism

    aside from

    centurties f

    corruption,

    but as a

    primaryepisode

    in

    severalhundred yearsof reform. From this new standpointthe old phrase

    Counter-Reformation,

    while

    perhaps

    still

    applicable

    to

    German

    religious

    historiography,

    appears

    to

    distort

    the wider

    reality

    of

    ecclesiastical

    history

    in

    the rest

    of

    Europe

    and

    beyond.

    Hubert

    Jedin's

    alternatives,

    Catholic

    Reformation-Counter

    Reformation,

    recognized

    the

    pluralism

    of

    the

    Catholic

    tradition,

    provoking

    in

    turn

    John

    O'Malley's

    Early

    Modern

    Catholicism. The

    expanding

    time frame

    of Catholic

    reform,

    which

    jean

    Delumeau

    had first

    extended

    from Luther

    to

    Voltaire,

    subsequently

    broad-

    ened even

    fuirther

    o stretchfrom

    the

    thirteenth

    to the

    eighteenth

    centuries.'

    This

    paper

    is

    respectfully

    dedicatedto

    Lewis

    Lockwood.

    Preliminary

    ersions were

    presented

    at

    the

    Convegno

    Internazionale

    di Studi in

    Occasione del

    Quarto

    Centenario

    della Morte

    di

    Giovanni

    Pierluigi

    da

    Palestrina,

    Palestrina,

    October

    1994

    (in

    whose

    proceedings

    an

    alternative

    text

    may eventually

    be

    published)

    and at the

    Sixty-sixth

    Annual

    Meeting

    of

    the

    American

    MusicologicalSociety,Toronto,

    November

    2000. It

    has

    greatly

    benefited

    from the

    suggestions

    and

    observationsof

    RichardSherr

    andthe

    two

    anonymnous

    eaders or this

    Journal.

    I

    also

    wish

    to

    thank

    Leofi-anc

    Holford-Strevens

    or his

    perceptive

    advice

    and

    commentary

    on

    the

    Latin

    transla-

    tions, and, indeed,

    on

    inaccuracies hat

    had

    crept

    into

    published

    versionsof the Latin

    originals.

    1. See, in particular,Hubert Jedin, KatbolischeReformationoder Gegenreformation? in

    Versuch ur

    Kiarung

    der

    Begriffe

    nebst

    einer

    Jubilaumsbetrachtung

    uiber

    das

    Trienter

    Konzil

    (Lucerne:

    Josef

    Stocker,

    1946);

    John

    W.

    O'Malley,

    Was

    Ignatius Loyola

    a Church

    Reformer?

    How to Look

    at

    Early

    Modern

    Catholicism,

    The

    CatholicHistorical

    Review77

    (1991):

    177-93;

    Paolo Prodi and

    Wolfgang

    Reinhard,

    eds.,

    II

    Conciliodi

    Trento

    il

    moderno

    Bologna:

    EI

    Mulino,

    1996);

    as well as

    Prodi's

    earlier

    writings

    such

    as II

    binomio

    jediniano

    'Riforma

    cattolica

    e

    Controriforma'

    la

    storiografia taliana,

    Annuali

    dell'Istituto

    torico

    talo-germanico n

    Trento

    6

    (1980):

    85-98,

    and Controriforma

    /o

    Riforma

    cattolica:

    Superamento

    di vecchi

    dflemimi

    nei

    [

    Journal

    ofteheAmerican

    usicological

    ociet

    2002,

    vol.

    55,

    no.

    1

    ?

    2002

    by

    the

    American

    Musicological

    ociety.

    All

    rights

    eserved.

    003-0139/02/5501-0001$2.00

  • 7/24/2019 Monson, Concilio Di Trento

    3/38

    2

    Journal of the American

    Musicological

    Society

    The familiar

    old

    legend

    of Palestrinaand his Missa

    Papae

    Marcelli

    saving

    church

    music from the Council's

    attacks,

    first

    apparently

    aised

    by

    Agostino

    Agazzari n 1607 and elaborated epeatedlyover the centuriesbeforereceiving

    its most

    artistic

    treatment

    in

    Hans Pfitzner's

    opera

    Palestrina

    (1917),

    has

    largely

    been

    laid to rest.2

    Yet

    considerable

    confusion has continued to

    sur-

    round

    the

    place

    of music

    at Trent.

    By revisiting

    he voluminous

    primary

    and

    secondary

    iteratureon

    Trent,

    some of which remains

    unpublished,

    this

    essay

    reconsiders

    how the

    Council

    treated

    the issue

    of

    music. It

    attempts

    to

    distin-

    guish

    between what was

    presented

    about

    music in

    importantpreliminary

    de-

    liberations,

    ess familiar

    o

    music

    historians,

    and the

    specific

    stipulations

    hat

    Council

    members

    eventually

    chose

    to make

    official,particularly

    t the

    twenty-

    second session. The failure

    o

    make such a distinction has contributed to

    sig-

    nificant

    misunderstanding

    n

    musical

    scholarship

    until

    very recently.3

    For the

    Council

    actually

    chose to

    say

    as

    little as

    possible

    about

    music-much

    less,

    in

    nuovi

    panoramistoriografici,

    Romische

    historische

    Mitteilungen

    31

    (1989):

    227-37; and,

    finally,

    John

    W.

    O'Malley's

    recent Trentand All

    That:

    Renaming

    Catholicism n the

    Early

    ModernEra

    (Cambridge

    and

    London: Harvard

    University

    Press,

    2000).

    On

    the

    expanding

    time frame of

    Catholic

    reform,

    see

    Jean

    Delumeau,

    CatholicismBetweenLuther

    and

    Voltaire:

    A

    New

    View

    of

    the

    Counter-ReformationLondon:Burns andOates, 1977); and idem, Lepeche t la peur:La culpa-

    bilisation

    en

    Occident,

    XIIIe-XVIIIe

    siecles

    Paris:

    Fayard,1983).

    2. Lewis H.

    Lockwood, ed.,

    Palestrina:

    Pope

    Marcellus

    Mass,

    prints

    several ersionsof

    the

    leg-

    end,

    from

    Agazzari(1607)

    to

    Giuseppe

    Baini

    (1828),

    along

    with

    very

    useful

    commentary([New

    York:

    Norton,

    1975],

    28-36).

    Jessie

    Ann

    Owens's reconsideration

    f Palestrina's

    eforming

    role,

    WasPalestrina

    Reformer?

    Rethinking

    the

    Myths

    of

    Reform,

    presented

    at

    the

    Yale

    University

    colloquium

    series

    Religious

    Reformations:

    Liturgy,Theology

    and the Arts

    in the

    Early

    Modern

    Period

    n

    November

    1998,

    revisits he whole

    question

    but

    remains

    unpublished.

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